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Army Uniforms 
Of The World 

Fred Gilblrt Blakeslki: 




3tt)ata, S3ett> ^arb 







3 1924 064 013 463 

Cornell University 

The original of tliis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 










THE STUDY of the changes which have 
occurred in the garb of the fighting man, 
and of the devices used to designate his leaders, 
from the days of the bow and arrow to those 
of the magazine rifle, should appeal to all per- 
sons interested in the history of mankind; and 
it is the purpose of this little work to treat this 
subject in such a manner that it may, it is 
hoped, prove helpful to those who might wish to 
learn something of the dress of the soldier in 
the diflferent periods of history. 

The author has spent a number of years 
collecting the data used in this book, much of 
it being obtained only after extensive search in 
such vast literary storehouses as the reading 
room of the British Museum in London, and 
the public libraries of Washington, New York, 

and Boston. 



Through its specialized attention to mili- 
tary badges of rank, it is believed that the 
book covers in detail a field not usually treated 
in works of a similar nature. 

In order to assist the student in further re- 
search, a bibliography of works relating to 
military costume is given, but while urging 
consultation of other publications, the author 
has endeavored to make his text so clear that 
the reader may obtain from it alone an accu- 
rate knowledge of the uniforms and insignia 
of rank in use in all of the principal armies of 
the world. 

Uniforms differ so greatly in the various 
countries that it is impossible to describe each 
separately within the limits of a book of this 
size, but a description of each class of uniform, 
in each country is given, and, as far as pos- 
sible, the facings which go with it are also in- 
dicated. In the same manner the form of in- 
signia of rank used in each army is described, 
together with its arrangement for any desired 
rank. This method obviates the necessity of 
illustrations, which if used at all, would from 


their very number greatly increase the cost 
of a work of this nature. In these days of 
universal photography, illustrations are not 
really necessary, since it is always possible to 
secure a picture of any desired uniform and 
by consulting the text, ascertain its color and 
facings, and the arrangement of the insignia 
for any rank. 

Besides a description of the uniforms of the 
different countries, information is also given 
regarding the methods in vogue in each, in 
wearing such articles of equipment as side- 
arms, dispatch pouches, sabre-taches, sashes 
and aiguillettes. 

As this work is written for American 
readers, the author has given special attention 
to tracing the development of the uniforms 
of our own army from Colonial times to the 
present day, not forgetting to include the garb 
worn by the gallant Confederates, who fought 
so gallantly for a lost cause, half a cen- 
tury ago. 

The author served in the Spanish war, and 
for fifteen years was military instructor of 


the West Middle School District in Hartford, 
Connecticut. He wrote the signed articles 
upon "Military Insignia of Rank," "Fencing" 
and "The Sword" in the Encyclopedia Ameri- 



Intboduction 7 


I. Ancient Costtjmes 18 

n. Eaklt Uniforms 26 

m. United States (1492-1861) 38 

rV. United States (1861-1919) 60 

World War 67 

V. Great Britain 77 

Decorations 90 

VI. Prance and Spain 97 

France 97 

Spain 108 

Vn. Germany and Austria 113 

Germany 113 

Austria-Hungary 122 

Vm. Russia and Italy 128 

Russia 128 

Italy 133 

IX. Sweden — Holland — Belgium — Denmark . 140 

Sweden 140 

Holland 143 

Belgium 146 

Denmark 151 

X. The Balkan States — Turkey — Roumania 
— Bulgaria — Sebvia — Greece — Mon- 
tenegro 166 

Turkey 156 

Roumania 158 

Bulgaria 161 

Servia 162 

Montenegro 164 

XI. Japan — China 166 

Japan 166 

China 171 

Bibliography 181 




MILITARY costume has undergone great 
changes during the centuries in which 
men have fought against each other, and it is a 
far cry from the days of prehistoric man, un- 
couthly garbed in skins, and armed with the 
primitive stone axe, to the time of the khaki- 
clad soldier with his high-powered magazine 

The earliest known type of human beings, 
either went without clothing, or were dressed 
in crudely tanned skins of animals. Their 
weapons were the axe, the knife, the javelin, 
and possibly the bow and arrow. As the art of 
working metals had not then been discovered, 
stone and wood were used exclusively in the 
construction of these earliest of weapons. 
Roughly speaking, the stone age began with 


the creation of the human race and lasted un- 
til the dawn of the Egyptian and the Assy- 
rian civilizations. As mankind became more 
intelligent, they learned to make use of min- 
erals, and bronze took the place of stone in 
weapons of offence. During this period also, 
cloth replaced skin as an article of wearing 
apparel, although leather continued to be used 
for defensive purposes. 

The Assyrians, according to bas-reliefs of 
ancient Ninevah, appear to have worn a tight- 
fitting jersey of twisted ropes over a tunic of 
cloth, and to have been armed with weapons of 
bronze. The sword, resembling a dagger in 
form, makes its appearance at this time, and 
men armed with javelins carried circular 
shields. Metal helms for protection of the 
head also came into use during this period. 

The Egyptians were not much given to wear- 
ing armor, relying chiefly upon the shield for 
defence. Egyptian shields were oblong, or 
oval, in form and many of them were provided 
with sight holes, through which a warrior could 
watch his adversary without uncovering him- 
self. Like Assyrians, the soldiers of Egypt 


possessed the short, straight, double-edged 
sword, but many of them carried in its stead a 
broad-bladed, single-edged cutting weapon, 
shaped something like the cleaver of our mod- 
ern butcher. 

The Trojan war was fought with weapons 
of brass, and Homer in his Iliad, gives us an 
excellent description of the military equipment 
of that period. The Greek warrior wore a 
cuirass of plate; a helmet which protected 
both the top of the head and the back of the 
neck and was surmounted by a fan-shaped 
crest; and metal greaves, which covered the 
leg from the knee to the ankle. A large cir- 
cular shield, a long javelin, and a straight, 
two-edged sword completed his equipment. 

With the passing of the Heroic Age we 
enter the iron period, and as we gaze at the 
Greeks and the Persians engaged in deadly 
warfare, we find the weapons and armor of 
both of the contending forces composed largely 
of that metal. The Greeks at this time had a 
highly efficient military organization and had 
perfected a formation known as the phalanx, 
which when brought into action under favor- 


able conditions was well nigh unconquerable. 
It was composed of heavily equipped men 
armed with long spears, placed close together 
in five or more ranks, and so arranged that 
the spears of the last rank projected three 
feet in front of the line of the front rank. One 
can well imagine the extreme difficulty of break- 
ing through such a solid array. The great 
weakness of the phalanx lay in the fact that it 
was difficult to maneuver except upon level 
ground, and if it was compelled to fight over 
rough country, it became almost impossible for 
it to hold the compact formation, which was 
so essential to its success. 

The hoplite, who was a member of the 
phalanx, wore an iron helm which completely 
covered his head, except for the eyes, mouth 
and chin; a leather tunic extending nearly to 
the knees, and greaves molded to fit the legs. 
He carried besides his spear, a heavy iron 
shield, round or oval in form, which afforded 
him complete protection from the neck to the 
knees. Besides the hoplite the Greeks had 
lightly armed troops, which they used for 
scouting, skirmishing and similar duties, but 


it was upon the heavUy equipped and thor- 
oughly trained soldier that they placed their 
chief reliance and it was these "men of iron" 
which enabled them to successfully withstand 
the terrific onslaughts of the vast hordes of 
Xerxes and Darius. 

-The Persians, having in their armies drafts 
drawn from the nations and tribes whom they 
had conquered, had a widely diversified mili- 
tary equipment which it would be useless to 
attempt to describe here, but in a general way 
it may be said that the dress of the nobles con- 
sisted of a garment of cloth upon which bands 
or rings of iron were sewn, while the common 
people had tunics of linen, or wool, padded 
with hair or some other substance. Helms of 
metal or padded cloth were worn; swords, 
spears, axes, javelins, bows and arrows, and 
slings constituted the armory of weapons and 
shields of various forms and sizes were largely 
relied upon for defence. On account of the 
great diversity of people who composed their 
army, it was impossible for the Persians to 
have as highly a trained organization as that 
of the Greeks. It was the Grecian phalanx, and 


afterwards the Roman legion which taught the 
world the value of discipline and organized 

With the advent of the Roman soldier we 
reach the age when steel replaced iron. The 
legionary wore a cuirass, composed of circular 
bands of steel sewn upon an undergarment of 
linen or leather, each band being hinged at 
the back and secured in front by means of a 
clasp. Four smaller plates passed over the 
shoulders like straps. On his head was a shal- 
low but serviceable helm, having cheek pieces 
which were fastened with a thong under the 
chin. A short, straight, double-edged sword, 
having its point cut at an obtuse angle, hung 
at his right side ; in his right hand he carried a 
spear of peculiar design, known as the pilum; 
and on his left arm he bore an oblong and very 
convex shield, emblazoned with the design of 
his legion. Roman officers wore a cuirass of 
plate, molded to fit the figure and often highly 
ornamented, from the bottom of which hung 
ropes of twisted leather, reaching nearly to 
the knee. Scale armor was sometimes also 
worn by officers of high rank. Over the cuirass 


was worn the paludementum or military 
mantle, which fastened on the right side and 
hung in graceful folds from the left shoulder, 
reaching to the middle of the leg. Superior 
officers disdained to wear the helmet and went 
into action bareheaded. 

The Roman legion differed from the Greek 
phalanx in that it did not have as great a 
depth and that the soldiers who composed it, 
instead of being placed shoulder to shoulder, 
were allowed an interval between them for the 
free use of their weapons. The great advan- 
tage of the legion over the phalanx lay in its 
superior ability to maneuver effectively over 
varied ground. 

The barbarian Franks, who burst from their 
Northern fastnesses and overthrew the once 
powerful, but then degenerate, Roman Empire, 
were totally devoid of defensive body armor. 
They fought bareheaded and with their bodies 
covered with linen tunics. Without cuirass or 
helm these wild warriors engaged the once in- 
vincible legions, and with only shields for their 
protection completely routed the soldiers whose 
forbears had once conquered the world. The 


Prankish shield was made of wood, circular or 
oval in form, strengthened with bands of iron 
tlnd having in its center a large projecting 
metal boss. For oifensive arms these savage 
fighters had axes, swords and javelins. 

In the days of Charlemagne we again find 
armor coming into use, consisting of a tunic of 
cloth to which metal disks were more or less 
closely sewn. Most of the soldiers still fought 
bareheaded, or wearing only a simple leather 
cap, but the knights adopted a triangular 
shaped helmet of steel. One great change 
occurred in the method of fighting at this time 
and that was the general introduction of 
mounted men into battles. Heretofore chief 
reliance had always been placed upon the foot 
soldier, but at this point we enter the age of 
chivalry, where the knight and the mounted 
man-at-arms were looked upon to bear the 
brunt of the fighting. 

When William of Normandy set out to in- 
vade England, his queen Matilda and the ladies 
of her court made a record of that great event 
by embroidering with their own fair hands a 
tapestry, showing in great detail the military 


equipment of both the Normans and the Sax- 
ons. This priceless tapestry is still preserved 
at Bayeux, France and from it we learn that 
both of the contending forces had armor con- 
sisting of a shirt of cloth, upon which rings of 
mail or small plates of iron were closely sewn, 
and a helmet of steel. The Normans carried a 
kite-shaped shield, while the Saxons had a cir- 
cular bucMer. Each was armed with long 
cross-hnted swords, axes, spears, javelins and 
bows and arrows. The Norman helm had a 
projecting nasal and back piece, while the 
Saxon covering for the head appears to have 
lacked these additional defences. 

Chain mail is supposed to have come from 
the East and to have been introduced into 
Europe after the first crusade. In the time 
of Richard I the armor of a knight consisted 
of a shirt of mail reaching nearly to the knees 
and having long sleeves, terminating in mit- 
tens ; long close-fitting trunks of mail which 
completely encased the legs and feet; and a 
shallow steel cap. When about to engage in 
battle, the great helm replaced the steel cap. 
This extremely heavy and unwieldy piece of 


armor covered the entire head and was pro- 
vided with sight and air holes. A concave 
shield, rather triangular in form, suspended 
from the neck by a belt, and a straight cross- 
hilted sword, worn on the left side, hanging from 
a loosely fitting belt completed the dress of a 
knight of this period. In the reign of King 
John, a loose sleeveless surcoat, reaching to 
the knees and worn over the mail shirt, was 
added to the costume. About the middle of 
the fourteenth century, this surcoat was re- 
placed by a much shorter and tightly fitting 
garment, termed the jupon. It was in this cen- 
tury also that plate, in the form of additional 
defences for the arms and legs, began to be 
worn, and the great helm was superseded by 
the lighter and more serviceable basinet, with 
its movable vizor. The shield by this time had 
also become much smaller and now bore the 
heraldic device of its bearer, while gauntlets 
were used for the protection of the hand. The 
famous battles of Crecy and Poitiers were 
fought in armor of this type. 

In these battles one should always remember 
the part played in them by the British archers, 


for it was their cloth-yard shafts which broke 
the force of the charge by the French chivalry. 
The long bow was pre-eminently the weapon 
of the English foot soldier, and no other peo- 
ple ever attained such skill in its use as did he. 
The best of them were made of yew and they 
projected an arrow nearly a yard in length. 
The range of this weapon in the hands of a 
good archer was about four hundred paces 
and with it, it was possible to keep several 
shafts in the air at a time. On the march the 
bow was often carried in a waterproof case, 
and at the battle of Crecy it was the fact that 
the English archers had, by this means, been 
able to keep their strings dry during a heavy 
shower, which enabled them to completely out- 
shoot the Genoese cross-bowmen, who lacked 
such protection for their weapons. 

The dress of both the archer and the cross- 
bowman were practically the same, although 
fashions naturally varied somewhat, according 
to the country to which the wearer belonged. 
Both wore a steel cap and a mail shirt or 
padded tunic. Besides his bow, each man had 
a sword, or axe and usually a small buckler. 


The quiver for arrows was worn suspended 
from the right hip and not hung from the shoul- 
der, as it is sometimes erroneously depicted by 
modern artists. The cross-bow, which was the 
favorite missile weapon of continental Europe, 
made its appearance in the latter part of the 
twelfth century and remained in use until dis- 
placed by firearms. It was a powerful weapon 
of greater range than the long bow, but- it was 
impossible to maintain a rapid fire with it, 
since its cord had to be drawn back by me- 
chanical means after each discharge. 

During the fifteenth century, plate entirely 
superseded mail and at the close of that cen- 
tury, we find the knight completely "locked in 
steel." Shields were discarded and no outer 
garments were worn with the armor. A dagger 
called the misericorde, used for slipping be- 
tween the vizor bars of a fallen foe, was added 
to the military equipment of this time. Com- 
plete armor continued to be worn throughout 
the sixteenth century, but in the seventeenth, 
the increasing use of firearms caused portions 
of it to be gradually discarded and by the end 
of that century only the helmet, now become a 


steel hat, and the cuirass, were commonly 
worn. A hundred years later the wearing of 
armor of any kind, except by the heavy cav- 
alry, was completely given up and the uniform 
became the distinctive dress of the soldier. 



HAVING marked the changes which 
occurred in the dress and equipment of 
the soldier from the days of prehistoric man to 
the time of the army uniform, let us see if we 
can learn something of the manner in which 
the opposing forces of the various countries 
were distinguished from each other, and how 
the leaders were differentiated in their apparel 
from men of lesser rank. As soon as man 
passed beyond the stage of barbarism each tribe 
or nation felt the need of having some special 
symbol of its own and it was these early sym- 
bols, reaching back to the dawn of history, 
which afterwards, through many changes, be- 
came our national flags. The standards of 
the nations of antiquity differed from the flags 
that, in modern days, have taken their place, in 
that they were of metal instead of cloth. The 


standards of the Assyrians, Egyptians and 
Greeks were circular disks, bearing distinctive 
devices, while the Romans carried the eagle at 
the head of their legions. All of these early 
standards had a religious significance. 

In the Middle Ages, flags and banners re- 
placed the metal symbols of the earlier periods 
and their use has continued until the present 
time. The first banners were crude affairs and 
the devices displayed upon them were without 
any special form of arrangement, but when the 
science of heraldry came into being, definite 
rules were adopted for the construction of flags 
and officers were appointed to see that these 
rules were enforced. 

The history of the Royal Standard of Great 
Britain shows the changes which a flag of this 
class passed through in the different centuries 
and affords us an excellent insight into her- 
aldic art. The earliest British standard of 
which we have any authentic record is that of 
Richard I, which bore three golden lions (sup- 
posedly in compliment to his cognomen — 
Coeur de Lion) upon a field of scarlet. The 
Scotch adopted about 1230 a rampant lion of 


red within a tressure of the same color, upon 
a field of gold, and upon the accession of James 
I to the throne (1603) this became incorpor- 
ated in the standard, signifying, as it did, the 
unification of the two countries. The harp of 
Ireland was added by Henry VIII and has re- 
mained in the standard ever since. Edward 
III, claiming to be king of France, as well as 
of England, quartered the golden fleurs-de-lys 
of that kingdom with the lions of his own coun- 
try and these symbols of an imaginative sov- 
ereignty were not removed from the royal flag 
of Great Britain until 1801. 

As early as the reign of Richard II it was 
the custom for English soldiers to wear the 
cross of Saint George upon the breast and back 
of their white surcoats and the red cross upon 
a white field soon became the national flag of 
England. Later the crosses of Saint Andrew 
of Scotland, and Saint Patrick of Ireland were 
added and thus was evolved the union jack of 
the present day. 

During the Middle Ages, the knight bore 
attached to his lance a swaUow-tailed pennon 
upon which his arms were displayed. For a 


deed of exceptional valor, the king would some- 
times create a knight a banneret, by cutting 
off the tails of his pennon with a sword. 

Armorial devices to indicate rank came into 
use during the latter part of the twelfth 
century. At that time it was the custom of 
knights when about to engage in combat, to 
place the great helm over the head, thus en- 
tirely screening the features, and it is possible 
that the necessity for having some means of 
identification under such circumstances, led to 
the devising of badges of rank, to be emblaz- 
oned upon the shields of such persons who had 
attained sufficient distinction to entitle them to 
such an honor. Early heraldic devices were 
simple in form and for some time more or less 
confusion existed, owing to the duplication of 
arms, especially amongst knights of different 
countries ; but gradually all armory was 
brought under certain international rules and 
the arms of a knight or noble became univer- 
sally recognized as being his distinctive insig- 
nia. When, during the fourteenth century, 
the long surcoat was replaced by the short, 
tight-fitting jupon, the arms of the wearer 


were embroidered upon the breast of that gar- 
ment, and from that fact became known as his 
coat of arms. 

After the jupon had been discarded and 
the knightly soldier was clad entirely in plate 
without outer covering, arms continued to be 
borne upon the lance pennons, the devices in 
many cases being so arranged that they would 
show in their true position, not when the lance 
was held aloft, but when it was couched for a 
charge. Common soldiers often wore the 
badges of their leaders, but were careful not 
to place them in knightly fashion: a metal 
plate attached to the left arm being one of 
the methods used for displaying such devices. 
Distinguishing scarfs were also worn to some 

It is well to remember that the coat of arms 
was the personal badge of the knight and while 
it indicated to some extent his military rank, 
it did not by any means limit the size of his 
command. Sir John Chandos and the Cheva- 
lier Bayard were simple knights and yet they 
often commanded armies in the field, having 
under them officers of far higher social rank 


than their own. Regulations regarding the 
relative rank of officers did not exist in those 

As half armor began to replace complete 
plate, the infantry, which for several centuries 
had occupied a very secondary place, came 
into prominence again and the fashion of fight- 
ing on foot became once more common. The 
mounted men-at-arms became the pikemen and 
the archer relinquished his bow for the match- 
lock. Regular organizations resembling our 
regiments began to be effected and soldiers were 
bound to the direct service of the king, rather 
than to that of their overlord, as had pre- 
viously been the case. In Elizabeth's time a 
company consisted of a captain, a lieutenant, 
an ensign, a surgeon, two sergeants and about 
ninety privates, of whom half were pikemen 
and half musketeers. Officers were armed with 
rapier and dagger and wore sashes, but as yet 
no distinction appears to have been made be- 
tween the grades. 

About the middle of the seventeenth century 
the wide-brimmed beaver replaced the steel 
morion and with this the men wore a ribbon and 


a bow and the officers a ribbon and rosette, 
both of which probably matched the color of 
the regimental facing. Twenty years later we 
find plumes added and the brim cocked up on 
one side, and early in the next century we find 
this head dress turned into the three-cornered 

A badge for officers was in vogue in England 
from 1660 to the end of the reign of Charles 
II, which consisted of a sort of epaulet, formed 
of bows of ribbon. This was worn on the right 
shoulder only. When the ribbon epaulet went 
out of fashion it was replaced by wings of 
cloth edged with lace, similar in form to those 
worn by English and German bandsmen of the 
present day. British officers continued to wear 
the waist sash (color probably red) the ends 
of which were ornamented with gold or silver 
fringe. The gorget, a curved metal plate about 
five inches long and two inches wide, worn just 
below the collar, came into vogue at this time 
as a mark of rank and continued to be a part 
of the dress of an officer in nearly all armies 
until the latter part of the eighteenth century. 
The Old Guard of New York still wear this 


curious ornament with their full-dress uniform. 
In England the gorget of a captain was gilt 
and of a lieutenant and ensign of steel studded 
with gold. A Captain of infantry carried a 
pike, a lieutenant a partisan and an ensign a 
half pike. Officers of cavalry carried white 
truncheons and general officers the baton. 

Although the pikeman was a very effective 
soldier in the assault, he was practically use- 
less for any other purpose and towards the end 
of the seventeenth century we find him dis- 
appearing from the armies of the world and his 
place taken by the musketeer, who owing to the 
introduction of the bayonet was now able to 
fight effectively both at a distance and at close 
quarters. Pistols also came into general use 
about this time and the old match-lock gun 
was superseded by the flint-lock musket. 

Of the earliest types of military uniforms 
two examples remain today: that of the Papal 
guard, said to have been designed by Michel- 
angelo ; and that of the "Beef Eaters," a corps 
organized by Henry VIII. Both of these are 
extremely picturesque, but illy adapted for 
actual service. The household troops of Louis 


XIV of France are said to have been the first 
soldiers to have worn a truly military uniform. 
With the single exception of the leather coat, 
which was very popular about the time of the 
Thirty Years War, the early dress of the 
soldier did not differ in its cut from that of 
the civilian and it was only his arms and equip- 
ment which gave it a military character. It 
was not until the eighteenth century that close- 
ness of fit became a distinguishing feature of 
the garb of the fighting man. 

From about 1650 to 1710 the single breasted 
frock coat, with the turned up cuffs appears to 
have been the favorite body garment of most 
soldiers both in England and on the continent, 
it being customary to leave the upper part of 
the coat unbuttoned, so as to show the lace tie. 
Cavalry wore top boots and infantry knee 
breeches and leggins. The wide-brimmed beaver 
was the almost universal hat of this period. Offi- 
cers wore long flowing wigs and men powdered 
their hair and braided it behind into the pig- 

Early in the eighteenth century, we find the 
cutaway superseding the frock coat and this 


article of apparel retained its popularity until 
after the Napoleonic wars. A variety of head 
dresses came into existence at this time, notable 
among them being the bearskin, the grenadier 
hat and the hussar busby, although the cocked 
hat was by no means driven from the field. The 
heavy wigs of Marlborough's time went out of 
fashion and both officers and men powdered 
their hair. It is during this period that we 
begin to find gold epaulets appearing on the 
shoulders of officers, although they do not as 
yet seem to have borne any devices, save pos- 
sibly in the cases of generals and other high 
military officials. 

A general order issued to the British Army 
on May 4, 1796 prescribes that all officers of 
infantry of the line shall have a crimson and 
gold cord around the hat, with a rosette of the 
same colors brought to the edge of the brim; 
the sword knot shall be crimson and gold in 
stripes ; the gorget to be gold gilt, with the 
king's cypher and crown in the middle ; the same 
to be worn with a ribbon and rosette at each 
end, of the color of the regimental facing. In 
the reign of George II, British officers wore the 


sash over the shoulder but in the time of George 
III, they were ordered to pass it around the 
waist ; officers of cavalry tying it on the right 
side and those of infantry on the left. 

Early in the nineteenth century, military 
fashions changed again and the cutaway gave 
place to the swallow tail, a coat which but- 
toned tightly across the breast and had a very 
high standing collar. Long trousers came into 
vogue at this time and the bell-crowned shako 
became the favorite head dress. This uniform, 
of which a sample has been preserved in the 
dress of the cadets at West Point, lasted in 
most armies until about 1840, when the short 
jacket for the men and the frock coat for offi- 
cers became the generally accepted rtile. With 
this uniform, a low-crowned cap attained pop- 
ularity in some armies. Towards the close of 
the century the Germans introduced the spiked 
helmet and it is still worn by a majority of the 
soldiers of both Germany and Great Britain. 

Each country now has its own distinctive 
uniforms, with which the insignia which denote 
the rank of its officers are clearly prescribed 
by official regulations ; and having noted the 


changes which have occurred in the dress of 
the soldier in the different periods of history, 
and marked the manner in which rank was 
shown in olden times, we are now ready to con- 
sider the uniforms of each country separately 
and note the methods by which rank is now in- 
dicated in the various armies of the world. 




IN 1492, when America was discovered by 
Columbus, complete armor was the fashion, 
but by the time settlements began to be effected 
on our shores, only the steel hat and cuirass 
were in common use. Miles Standish marched 
against the Pequots in armor of this type, but 
even defences of this sort did not long remain 
popular, the sturdy settler soon learning to 
place more reliance upon skill with the rifle, 
than upon heavy plate which so greatly im- 
peded active movements. 

When the French and Indian War broke 
out, the colonies sent their quota of men to 
assist the king's forces and it was in this war 
that many of our officers received training 
which was of such great value to us later in 
our struggle for independence. As a rule 
Colonial troops wore the simple dress of the 


woodsman, but some of them were clad in uni- 
forms modeled after those of famous British 
regiments. The Governor's Foot Guard of 
Connecticut, organized in 1771, of which the 
writer was formerly a member, still preserves 
its ancient uniform, copied from that worn by 
the Coldstream Guards, and affords an ex- 
cellent example of the dress of the soldier of 
that period. It consists of a bearskin hat, a 
scarlet cutaway coat, with black velvet breast, 
ornamented with rows of silver braid, buif 
waistcoat and breeches and black velvet leg- 
gins. White cross belts support the cartridge 
box and bayonet-scabbard, and oiRcers and 
staff sergeants wear a dark red sash around 
the waist. 

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, 
when Washington assumed command of the 
American forces at Cambridge, he found an 
army practically without uniforms of any 
kind. Here and there, it is true, might be seen 
a detachment garbed in the dress of the soldier, 
but the great majority of his men were dressed 
in ordinary civilian clothes or else wore the 
coonskin hat and buckskin shirt of the hunter. 


Fond as the great leader was of the "pomp and 
circmnstance of war," he realized that the 
struggling colonies could not, at this time, 
provide elaborate uniforms for their troops 
and so he recommended that the hunting shirt 
be adopted as the distinctive dress of the 
American soldier. In making this recommen- 
dation to Congress he points out that "no 
dress can be cheaper or more convenient in 
warm weather and warm in cool weather." By 
wearing light or heavy underclothing this garb 
could be made suitable for either summer or 
winter and besides, as he says, "it is a dress 
justly supposed to carry no small terror to 
the enemy, who think every such person a com- 
plete marksman." 

Although uniforms were practically non-ex- 
istent when Washington took command of the 
forces in front of Boston, one of the first things 
which he did was to issue an order for fixing 
the insignia of rank to be worn by officers and 
non-commissioned officers. The order stated 
that, "As the Continental army has unfortu- 
nately no uniforms and consequently many in- 
conveniences must arise from not being able to 


distingmsh commissioned officers from pri- 
vates, it is desired that some badges of distinc- 
tion may be provided; for instance that the 
field officers have a red or pink cockade in their 
hats, the captains, yellow or buff, and the sub- 
alterns, green." The sergeants were directed 
to wear a stripe of red cloth, or epaulet of that 
color, on the right shoulder, and the corporals 
a similar badge of green. Washington further 
directed that for the purpose of preventing 
mistakes, that general officers and aids-de-camp 
be distinguished in the following manner : "The 
Commander in Chief, by a light blue ribbon 
worn across his heart, between his coat and his 
waistcoat; the major and brigadier general 
by a pink ribbon worn in the same manner; 
aids-de-camp, by a green ribbon." 

For nearly a year after the beginning of the 
war the American troops were all militia and 
they wore such uniforms as their states pro- 
vided, or else fought in homespun or buck- 
skin, but in 1776 Congress authorized Wash- 
ington to raise an army by direct enlistment 
and to prescribe its uniform and appoint its 
officers. The commander-in-chief experienced 


great difficulty in organizing and equipping 
this first regular army of ours and owing to 
the impossibility of securing sufficient quanti- 
ties of proper cloth, it was not thoroughly uni- 
formed according to prescribed regulations 
until after our klliance with the French. Dur- 
ing the greater part of the Revolutionary 
War, the American soldier was supposed to 
wear a three cornered felt hat, a light blue 
coat, and buff vest, breeches, and leggins, but 
he actually wore whatever he could procure and 
in the dark days of Valley Forge, clothing of 
any sort was extremely scarce. 

A corps of light infantry was organized for 
Lafayette in 1779 and partially equipped by 
him. Its uniform consisted of a light blue coat, 
faced with white, white waistcoat and breeches, 
black leggins, and a leather hat surmounted 
by a horsehair crest. At this time the uni- 
forms of the remainder of the army were 
grouped by states, those from New England 
being faced with white, those from New York 
and New Jersey with buff, those from Pennsyl- 
vania, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia with 
red, and those from North Carolina, South 


Carolina and Georgia with blue. Officers wore 
one or two epaulets, according to rank, gen- 
erals and field officers wearing two and cap- 
tains and subalterns one. 

On June 18, 1780 an order was issued regu- 
lating the insignia of rank as follows : For ma- 
jor generals, two gold epaulets with two gold 
stars upon each and a black and white feather 
in the hat; for brigadier generals, two gold 
epaulets, having one gold star each, and a 
white feather ; for colonels, lieutenant colonels, 
and majors, two epaulets (without device) ; for 
captains, an epaulet on the right shoulder; for 
subalterns, an epaulet on the left shoulder ; for 
sergeants, two worsted epaulets (color not 
stated) ; for corporals, one worsted epaulet on 
the right shoulder. In 1782 a non-commissioned 
officer or a private who had served four years 
in the Continental army was allowed to wear a 
service stripe of white tape on his left sleeve, 
three inches below the shoulder. 

After the Revolutionary War the regular 
army was practically disbanded, only a very 
smaU force being retained for the purpose of 
guarding government stores. The highest officer 


in it only held the rank of major of artillery. 
In 1796 the size of the army was some- 
what increased ; red became the infantry facing 
and yellow that of the artillery. Fear of war 
with France caused the army to be recruited to 
10,000 men in 1799, and the uniforms under- 
went some slight changes, although still fol- 
lowing the fashions of the Revolution. In 1802 
it was prescribed that the epaulets of all in- 
fantry officers should be silver and those of 
the artillery gold. 

When in 1812 we became involved in another 
war with England, the single breasted swallow- 
tailed coat with a very high standing collar had 
replaced the cutaway and the color of our army 
uniform had been changed from light to dark 
blue. Long trousers were then the fashion, 
although mounted officers still wore buff riding 
breeches and knee boots. For a short time en- 
listed men wore high hats, shaped like our 
modern silk hat, but this head dress was soon 
replaced by the bell-crowned shako, for the 
infantry and artillery, the helmet with horse- 
hair plume for the cavalry, and the chapeau 
for generals and staff officers. Facings to indi- 


cate the different arms of the service appear 
to have gone out of fashion at this time. Grey 
uniforms were worn by riflemen and they have 
been retained in our modern army in the dress 
of the cadets at West Point. 

In 1813, general officers, and officers of the 
various staff corps, and of artillery and rifles, 
wore gold epaulets, and officers of infantry and 
cavalry, silver. The practice of wearing one 
or two epaulets according to rank remained un- 
changed, and upon none of the epaulets except 
those of general officers were displayed any dis- 
tinctive devices. 

In 1821, wings displaced epaulets for line 
officers of infantry, artillery and rifles. These 
wings were of silver for infantry, and gold for 
the two other branches of the service. As wings 
were worn upon both shoulders without regard 
to rank, it was prescribed that captains should 
wear one chevron upon each arm above the el- 
bow, and subalterns, one upon each arm below 
the elbow. These chevrons extended from seam 
to seam and were placed upon the sleeve point 
upward. Sergeant-majors and quartermaster- 
sergeants wore one worsted chevron upon each 


arm above the elbow, sergeants, one below the 
elbow and corporals, one upon the right arm 
only, below the elbow. Chevrons for both 
officers and enlisted men consisted of a single 
stripe and their color matched that of the 
officers' wings. 

In 1825, an arc of gold or silver braid was 
added to the chevrons of an adjutant and a 
similar arc of worsted to that of a sergeant- 
major. During this year also facings were 
re-adopted to distinguish the various branches 
of the service; yellow and red for light artil- 
lery, yellow for heavy artillery, red for grena- 
diers, white and red for light infantry, white 
for infantry, green for rifles, and orange for 

By a general order issued June 11, 1832, 
insignia of rank was changed so that all officers 
wore two epaulets. The epaulets of general 
officers remained as before, but the eagle now 
appears for the first time as a device indicat- 
ing the rank of colonel. A lieutenant colonel 
wore the same epaulet as a colonel, omitting the 
eagle, while the epaulets of a major were of 
mixed gold and silver bullion, and without 


devices. Captains wore epaulets of a diflFerent 
design, of gold or silver according to arm of 
service, and lieutenants smaller epaulets than 
those of a captain. All epaulets except those 
of general officers bore the regimental number. 
Shoulder straps in the form which we now 
have them, were prescribed for the undress 
uniform in 1836. These first shoulder straps 
had a border of gold in some branches of the 
service, and of silver in others. The devices 
displayed upon them were as follows: 

Commander in Chief Three Stars 

Major General Two Stars 

Brigadier Cieneral One Star 

Colonel Spread Eagle 

Lieutenant Colonel Leaf at end of strap of the 

same metal as that of the 

Major Leaf at each end of strap of 

the opposite metal from 
that of the border 

Captain Two bars at each end of 

the strap of the same 
metal as the border 

First Lieutenant One bar like that of a cap- 

Second Lieutenant No bar 

Chevrons of more than one stripe to mark 
the rank of non-commissioned officers were 
adopted in 1847. Three stripes were ordered 


for a sergeant and two for a corporal, and this 
regulation remains in force to the present day. 
Until within the last few years, chevrons ex- 
tended from seam to seam. At first they were 
worn point upward, but in 1861 an order was 
issued turning the points downward and they 
remained in that position until the present small 
sized chevron was adopted, when the points 
were again turned upward. The facings at 
the time when the chevron first became the dis- 
tinguishing mark of the non-commissioned offi- 
cer were : artillery, scarlet ; infantry, light blue ; 
rifies, green ; cavalry, orange ; and the color of 
the chevron, of course, matched the facing of 
the arm of the service to which the wearer be- 
longed. At this time also we find the bars of 
a captain and first lieutenant changed to silver 
and all epaulets and shoulder straps were 
ordered to be gold instead of some being gold 
and some silver, as had formerly been the case. 
The gold leaf now appears on the shoulder 
strap of a major although his epaulet is still 

It was during the Mexican War that we find 
first a campaign dress as distinct from the full 


uniform. The enlisted men wore a short jacket, 
long trousers, and a soft-topped cap, similar 
in shape to our modern yachting cap, while the 
officers had the frock coat, single breasted for 
all officers, except generals, and the same type 
of head dress as the men. Generals wore a yellow 
sash under their sword belts, surgeons, a green 
sash, and other officers a sash of crimson net. 
Shoulder straps instead of epatilets were worn 
with this serAdce dress. 

In 1855, the ugly French shako became the 
head dress for all ranks and the coats of the 
enlisted men were lengthened until they became 
like the coat of the officers, a single breasted 
frock. Just before the outbreak of the Civil 
War, the black felt hat was adopted for the 
cavalry and it quickly became so popular that 
before long it was worn throughout the army. 
It was turned up on the right side and fastened 
with an eagle, the hats of officers being deco- 
rated with gold cords and ostrich feathers. 




WHEN Fort Sumter was fired upon and 
the greatest civil conflict of modern 
times began, both the North and South found 
themselves illy prepared for the mighty strug- 
gle. Both rushed to arms, but neither was 
able to at once place an army in the field. The 
regular troops of the United States were 
widely scattered and could not be rapidly con- 
centrated and their numbers were so small that 
even if they could have been brought together, 
it would have been impossible to have made an 
effective campaign with them alone. Besides, 
many officers of Southern birth were resigning 
daily and offering their services to their states 
and the government did not feel that it could 
rely altogether upon the fidelity of the only 
trained troops which it possessed. The South, 
of course, did not even have a small regular 


army to fall back upon and both sides were 
obliged to rely largely at first upon untrained 
volunteers. Although military knowledge was 
not widely diffused among the population in 
any part of the country, many of the states 
on both sides of Mason's and Dixon's line 
possessed militia organizations, and it was these 
regiments of citizen soldiers which formed the 
first line of defence and became the nucleus 
aroiuid which the armies of the North and the 
South were formed. 

It was a tremendous task to uniform, arm 
and equip the vast bodies of newly raised 
troops, and it is little wonder that six months 
elapsed before either side was ready to take the 
field. The northern forces then moved against 
the Confederate capital at Richmond, but were 
badly defeated at BuU Run and fell back upon 
Washington to reorganize. The Confederates 
were not able to follow up their victory and 
both sides realizing at last the magnitude of 
the struggle in which they were involved, bent 
every effort to perfecting the organization and 
equipment of their troops before engaging in 
further hostilities. 


The uniform of the United States Army re- 
mained practically unchanged from 1861 to 
1865. For enlisted men it consisted of a dark 
blue four-button sack coat with a turn-down 
collar, light blue trousers and a dark blue fa- 
tigue cap. Full dress in the form of single- 
breasted frock coat for infantry, artillery, and 
engineers and a short jacket for cavalry and 
light artillery was prescribed but rarely issued. 
At one time during the war the color of all 
trousers was ordered changed to dark blue, 
and stripes 1^ inch for sergeants and J inch 
for corporals were added, but these regulations 
do not appear to have been complied with to 
any great extent and the light blue trousers 
without welt or stripe continued in use through- 
out the war. 

Officers wore a frock coat with shoulder 
straps, denoting their rank, and their trousers 
were dark blue and ornamented with a welt of 
gold or worsted cord of the color of their arm 
of the service. Their head dress was either the 
black felt hat, or the fatigue cap. Many offi- 
cers, when in active service, wore a blouse 
similar to that worn by the men, and sky blue 


trousers with the welt described above. The 
frock coat for officers had its buttons so ar- 
ranged that even if the insignia of the shoulder 
straps could not be seen, the rank of the officer 
could be determined at a glance. All general 
officers wore a double-breasted coat; a major 
general having nine buttons in each row, placed 
by threes; a brigadier general, eight buttons, 
placed in pairs. Colonels, lieutenant colonels, 
and majors also wore double-breasted coats, 
but had only seven buttons in each row, placed 
at equal distances apart. The coat for cap- 
tains and lieutenants was single-breasted and 
had nine buttons, with an equal distance be- 
tween each button. All officers wore a 
sash which was passed twice around the waist 
and tied on the left side. For general officers 
it was buff, for surgeons, green, and for all 
other officers, crimson. A black leather sword 
belt, with two slings and a hook, from which 
the sword was suspended, when dismounted, 
was worn over the sash. The overcoat for 
officers was dark blue fastened with four frogs 
across the breast. To indicate rank, a knot 
of black silk braid, not exceeding one-eighth 


of an inch in width, was placed upon both 
sleeves, just above the cuff, the different de- 
grees being indicated in the following manner: 

General Five braids, double knot 

Colonel Five braids, single knot 

Lieutenant Colonel Four braids, single knot 

Major Three braids, single knot 

Captain Two bi'aids, single knot 

First Lieutenant One braid, single knot 

Second Lieutenant Plain sleeve 

Enlisted men had a sky blue overcoat with 
a cape reaching to the cuff. 

Facings to indicate the arm of the service 
were the same as those now in use; namely, 
yellow for cavalry, sky blue for infantry, and 
scarlet for artillery. To further indicate the 
branch to which the soldier belonged, a bugle 
was worn upon the front of the cap by the in- 
fantry, crossed sabres by the cavalry, and 
crossed cannon by the artillery. Regimental 
numbers were placed above, or withinj the cap 
device and a corps badge of colored cloth, 
which showed the army corps and division to 
which a soldier belonged, was displayed upon 
the flat top of the fatigue cap, or upon the 
side of the felt hat. 


The uniforms of the Confederate States 
were grey throughout, the coats being the 
double-breasted style for both officers and en- 
listed men. Rank of officers was indicated by 
a knot of gold braid, which extended from the 
cuff to the bend of the elbow. General officers 
wore four braids ; field officers, three ; captains, 
two ; and lieutenants, one. Further distinction 
was shown by devices worn upon the collar. 
Generals had a wreath inclosing three stars, all 
embroidered in gold; a colonel had three stars 
of gold arranged horizontally; a lieutenant 
colonel, two stars ; a major, one star ; a cap- 
tain, three gold bars arranged horizontally; a 
first lieutenant, two gold bars; and a second 
lieutenant, one bar. Sergeants and corporals 
wore the same type of chevron as those in use 
in the United States Army. The facings of 
the Confederacy were buff, for general officers 
and staff departments, black for the medical 
corps, red for artillery, yellow for cavalry, and 
light blue for infantry. 

Between the years of 1874 and 1880 the 
uniform of the United States Army underwent 
a number of important changes. The full dress 


coats of all commissioned officers became double 
breasted and shoulder knots replaced epaulets 
for all except generals. The pad of the knot, 
like the field of the strap, was of the color of 
the service facing and besides its insignia of 
rank it contained the regimental number, or 
the staff device. At first the shako, which, 
however, was much lower in form than that 
formerly in use, was the head dress of the in- 
fantry and heavy artillery, but after the 
Franco-Prussian war the helmet became the 
universal head covering for all branches of 
the service. Mounted officers wore with it a 
plume which matched the color of their shoul- 
der knots and had a gold helmet cord which 
was passed over and under the right shoulder 
and fastened to the top button on the left side 
of the coat. Dismounted officers wore a brass 
spike in place of the plume and did not have the 
cord. Sashes were no longer worn, except by 
generals, and the sword belt changed from 
black leather to gold, with silk facing colors. 
Trousers, except for general and staff de- 
partment officers, were light blue and had a 
IJ-inch facing stripe down their outer seams. 


Enlisted men wore the single-breasted frock 
coat, somewhat short in the case of mounted 
troops, and their helmets were either plumed 
or spiked, according to the unit to which they 
belonged. Their trousers were light blue and 
non-coms had stripes on them of the same 
width as now worn. The Signal Corps which 
was organized during the Civil War, now had 
the same uniform as that of the cavalry, except 
that their facings were orange instead of 

In undress, both officers and men wore the 
dark blue five-buttoned blouse, and the natty 
forage cap. Generals and staif department 
officers in full dress wore the chapeau in place 
of the helmet and had dark blue trousers, with- 
out welt or stripe. Regimental Adjutants 
wore the aiguillette suspended from the right 
shoulder, the arm being passed through the 
loops and the ends attached to one of the but- 
tons on the right breast. Dismounted officers 
had a straight, narrow-bladed, two-edged sword 
with knuckle bow and two small counter guards, 
while mounted officers used the sabre. 

This style of uniform remained in vogue 


until the Spanish American war, except that 
the undress blouse for officers became braided 
around the collar and bottom and down the 
breast and fastened with concealed buttons, 
and the fashion of the fatigue cap changed, 
for both officers and men, from the old model to 
one that was flat topped and of equal height 
all around. 

During our short war with Spain, khaki 
uniforms for active servica were prescribed 
and the drab campaign hat used for many 
years by our troops on the plains became ex- 
ceedingly popular. Since this war our uni- 
forms have undergone another change. The 
helmet and chapeau have completely disap- 
peared and the cap, larger at the top than at 
the bottom, has become the universal head cov- 
ering for all ranks. The form of the officer's 
frock coat has been altered, the collar deco- 
rated all around with gold braid, the insignia 
of rank transferred from the knot to the sleeves 
and the knot itself entirely altered in form. 
The coat of the enlisted men has become really 
a dress blouse, piped with service colored 
facings and ornamented with entirely useless 


worsted helmet cords, which, of course, match 
the facings. The army now has three uniforms, 
known as full dress, dress, and service, and 
besides this the officers have a special social 
dress cut along the lines of civilian evening 
dress and a mess jacket which represents the 
dinner coat of civil life. The various insignia 
and facings in the United States Army today 
are as follows: 

General Officers. Full dress coat. Double- 
breasted frock, collar ornamented with band of 
gold embroidered oak leaves extending all the 
way round; gold epaulets with coat of arms in 
gold in center of crescent, velvet cuff with band 
of gold oak leaves around top of it, with one or 
two silver stars above it according to rank. 
For all other officers, same as for general ex- 
cept that collar has two bands of gold em- 
broidery around top and bottom, with a strip 
of cloth of color of service facing, between 
and sleeves are without velvet cuff and display 
the braided insignia of rank. The shoulder 
knot of braided gold wire cord, terminating at 
the shoulder and without any cloth pad at the 
end, is worn by all officers below the rank of 


general. No devices of any sort are displayed 
upon this knot. Sleeve insignia of the differ- 
ent grades is as follows: 

Colonel A single knot of five 

strands of gold wire lace, 
J inch in width, extend- 
ing from a gold band at 
the cuff nearly to the el- 

Lieutenant-Colonel Four strands 

Major Three strands 

Captain Two strands 

First Lieutenant One strand 

Second Lieutenant Only the band at the cuff. 

Sleeve insignia for overcoats is the same as 
above, except that the ornamentation is of black 
mohair braid. 

Generals wear two black bands upon cuff of 
overcoat with star, or stars, between. 

Dress Coat. For general officers a double- 
breasted sack with gilt buttons. For all 
other officers a single-breasted sack, closing 
with a concealed flap, the coat trimmed with 
flat, black mohair braid, extending all around 
the bottom, up the front edges and around the 
collar. Shoulder straps are attached to this 
coat and the sword belt worn beneath ; the hook 
from which the sabre is suspended being passed 


through a slit in the left side. Insignia on 
shoulder straps is placed upon the field of the 
strap which matches the facings of the arm of 
the service. It is as follows: 

Major General Two silver stars 

Brigadier General One silver star 

Colonel One silver spread eagle 

Lieutenant-Colonel A silver leaf 

Major A gold leaf 

Captain Two silver bars 

First Lieutenant One sUver bar 

Second Lieutenant A blank field 

The devices of the officers below the rank of 
colonel are placed at each end of the strap, as 
are the silver stars of the major general. 

Service Coat. Single-breasted, olive drab 
with outside pockets and fastened with five 
bronze buttons. Insignia of rank is the same 
as that displayed upon the shoulder strap, but 
the devices are attached to the end of the shoul- 
der piece which is of the same color as the 
coat. Officers are allowed, in summer, to wear 
a white imiform cut like that of the blue dress, 
insignia with it being the same as that of the 
service uniforms. The overcoat is olive drab 
of ulster pattern, for all officers and men. 


Full Dress and Dress Trousers. For gen- 
eral officers dark blue, two #| inch gold 
stripes one quarter of an inch apart for full 
dress, plain for dress. For officers of Staff 
Corps, same as general, except that they have 
only one stripe of gold braid and that is seven 
eighths of an inch wide. For officers of engi- 
neers, dark blue with stripes of scarlet, 1^ 
inches wide, piped with white cord. For all 
other officers, for both full dress and dress, light 
blue with 1-J inch stripe of the color of their 
service facing, except infantry, which is white. 

Service Trousers. Olive drab for all offi- 
cers, without welt or stripe. 

Full Dress and Dress Hat. For general 
officers dark blue cloth with turn down vizor, 
with arms of United States in golden em- 
broidery in front ; the cap to be encircled with 
gold oak leaves and the vizor ornament to be 
of the same design. 

For all other Officers. The same as for 
general, except that the cap is encircled with 
two bands of gold braid with service colored 
silk between. Captains and lieutenants have a 
plain vizor. 


Service Cap for all Officers. Olive drab with 
band of same colored braid around it, If inches 
wide, and bronze coat of arms in front. A fdt 
campaign hat is also worn with the service 

The sword for all officers is the sabre, with 
German silver guard and steel scabbard; the 
sword knot is of gold and black silk, interwoven 
with acorn end for full dress and dress, and 
leather for service. The sword belt is gold for 
full dress and russet leather for dress and ser- 
vice. It is worn over the full dress and service 
coats and under the dress blouse. In service 
dress all officers wear the russet leather puttee. 
The social dress is dark blue throughout. 
Shoulder knots and gold sleeve insignia are 
worn with this uniform. The mess jacket 
reaches to the hips and is open in front. The 
same insignia is worn with this as for social 
dress. The facings of the different arms of 
the service are as follows : 

General Officers Dark blue 

Engineers Scarlet, piped with white 

Signal Corps Orange, piped with white 

Ordnance Black piped with scarlet 

Medical Corps Maroon 


Quartermaster Department. Buff 

Cavalry Yellow 

Artillery Scarlet 

Infantry Light blue (chevrons and 

trousers stripe white) 

Enlisted Men. 

Dress Coat. Dark blue, single-breasted with 
six buttons, piped with service facings. Breast 
cord, color of arm of service, attached to left 
shoulder, passing around neck, under right 
arm, across breast and fastened to left shoul- 
der button. 

Service Coat. -Olive drab, or khaki, single 
breasted, with patch pockets and bronze but- 

Dress Trousers. Sky blue, plain for pri- 
vates, one-half-inch stripe, color of facing, for 
corporals, l:|-inch stripe for sergeants. 

Service Trousers and Breeches. Olive drab 
or khaki, without welt or stripe. 

Dress Cap. Dark blue cloth, same pattern 
as that of officers, two service-facing stripes 
around top and bottom of band. 

Service Cap and Campaign Hat. Of color 
of service uniform. 

Unit Ornaments. These are brass for full 


dress and bronze for service and are worn on 
the front of the cap and on the collar of the 

Cavalry Crossed sabres 

Artillery Crossed cannon 

Infantry Crossed rifles 

Engineers Castle 

Signal Corps Crossed flags and torch 

Ordnance Corps Shell and flame 

Hospital Corps Caduceus 

Quartermaster's Dept Sword and key crossed on 

a wheel, with spread 

eagle above. 
Subsistence Dept A crescent 

Chevrons. Small sized, of the color of the 
facing for full dress (white for infantry) and 
of light brown for service, worn midway be- 
tween the elbow and shoulder, point upwards. 

Regimental Serge^ant Ma- 
jor Three bars and an arc of 

three bars. 
Regimental Quartermas- 
ter Sergeant Three bars and a tie of 

three bars 

Color Sergeant Three bars and a star 

Battalion Sergeant Ma- 
jor Three bars and an arc of 

two bars 

Chief Musician Three bars and an arc of 

two bars with a bugle in 


Chief Trumpeter Three bars and an arc of 

one bar with bugle in 

Ordnance Sergeant Three bars and an arc of 

one bar, inclosing shell 

'and flame 

Sergeant of Ordnance Same omitting arc 

Hospital Corps Sergeants 

(First class) Three bars and an 'arc of 

one bar, inclosing car- 

Hospital Corps Sergeants 

(Second class) Same omitting arc 

Master Signal Electricians . Three bars and an arc of 

one bar, inclosing white 

silk forked lightning 
First Class Sergeant, Sig- Same, but with crossed 
nal Corps flags and torch in place 

of lightning 
Sergeant, Signal Corps .... Same omitting arc 

First Sergeant Three bars and a lozenge 

Company Quartermaster 

Sergeant Three bars and a tie of one 

Stable Sergeant Three bars and 'a horse's 


Sergeant Three bars 

Corporal Two bars 

Lance Corporal One bar 

Service stripes of the color of the arm of 
the service in which the soldier served are worn 
diagonally across the sleeve of the dress coat, 
below the elbow. To indicate service in war, 
the stripe is of white cloth piped with the fac- 
ings of the branch of the army in which the 


wearer served. Service stripes are worn by 
both non-commissioned officers and privates. 

WoKLD War 

When the United States declared war upon 
Grermany in 1917, we had a regular army, and 
a national guard which was subject to the call 
of the President. Both of the forces were at 
once mobilized and recruited to full war 
strength. We had also a limited number of 
officers of the United States Reserve and they 
were also called at once into service. It was 
evident that a much larger army than this 
would be required, and the selective draft sys- 
tem was adopted. Before the men could be 
drafted, however, quarters had to be prepared 
for them, and additional officers trained to 
command them. The latter need was met by 
organizing officers' training camps in various 
parts of the country, where several thousand 
men, selected largely from amongst college 
graduates and non-commissioned officers of the 
national guard, were given an intensive training 
of three months duration and then commis- 


sioned in the Officers Reserve Corps. Numbers 
of regular army sergeants whose years of ser- 
vice had fitted them for higher commands were 
also commissioned, so that when, in the fall of 
our first year in the war, the draftees were 
ordered to their training camps, we had the 
officers necessary to make them over into sol- 
diers. Meantime several divisions of regular 
army and national guard troops had already 
been sent to France, where later they were to 
give a glorious account of themselves, and 
help our gallant allies in smashing the Hun. 

The uniforms of our troops in the World 
War did not differ greatly from those imme- 
diately preceding it. Service uniform, either 
olive drab or khaki, was the only one worn, all 
other uniforms being forbidden during the 
continuance of hostilities. During the first 
year of the war, officers of the regular army 
wore the letters U. S. on the collar of the coat 
in front of their arm of the service device, and 
officers of the reserve, the letters U. S. R. in 
the same position, but in 1918 this was changed 
so that all officers wore the letters U. S. En- 
listed men wore a bronze button on either side 


of the collar, the one on the right side contain- 
ing the letters U. S. and the one on the left the 
device of the arm of the service to which the 
wearer belonged. Although the olive drab ser- 
vice cap was worn to some extent by both offi- 
cers and enlisted men, the wide brimmed, soft 
crowned campaign hat was at first the almost 
universal head dress for all ranks. This was 
worn, cowboy fashion, dented in four places, 
and except for officers, had a cord of the color 
of the service facing. A leather strap passed 
under the chin. For officers of all grades and 
branches, the hat cord was of gold, and black 
silk, interwoven. Although this hat was ex- 
cellent for open warfare, it was not well 
adapted for trench work, and so a soft vizor- 
less and brimless cap was prescribed, which 
fitted closely to the head and had side flaps 
which in cold weather could be turned down 
over the ears. This was known as the oversea 
cap. Officers wore the insignia of their rank 
on the left side of the cap, which was piped to 
show the arm of the service to which the wearer 
belonged; enlisted men wore their arm of ser- 
vice button instead of insignia, and their caps 


were not piped. For active duty in France, a 
steel helmet was issued, having a rounding top 
and small, slightly sloping brim. A leather 
strap passed under the chin. Gas masks were 
carried by all persons at the front. They were 
contained in khaki bags and were suspended 
over the chest by a web belt passing around 
the neck. 

In 1917 a second lieutenant wore no insignia 
of rank on his coat, except the band of tan col- 
ored braid which was the mark of an officer, 
but in 1918 a gold bar was added to his shoul- 
der piece. His overcoat also received a knot of 
a single strand of braid, which, however, was 
tan in color instead of black, as worn by other 
officers. During the first year of the war, non- 
commissioned officers wore chevrons upon both 
arms, but the following year, an order was 
issued stating that the chevron was to be worn 
upon the right arm only. Wound and service 
chevrons were worn, point down, by both offi- 
cers and enlisted men entitled to them on the 
lower part of the sleeve about four inches from 
the end. 

Wotmd Chevron. For a wound received in 


action, a single stripe chevron of gold lace, 
slightly larger than a non-commissioned officer's 
chevron, worn on the right sleeve. For addi- 
tional wounds received in different actions, 
additional stripes were worn. 

War Service Chevron. For each six months 
of foreign service, a gold stripe identical with 
that of the wound chevron, worn on the left 

Home Service Chevron. For each six months 
of home service, a sUver stripe worn on the left 

A sky blue cloth chevron of a single stripe 
was worn on the left arm by those who had 
served less than six months abroad. 

Discharge Chevron. Enlisted men upon 
being honorably discharged, were authorized to 
wear, upon the left arm, a scarlet chevron of 
a single stripe, point upward, midway between 
the elbow and the shoulder. They had the 
right to wear their uniform for three months 
after discharge. 

Shirt. When the olive drab shirt was worn 
without the coat, officers wore the insignia of 
their rank upon the collar, and enlisted men 


upon the sleeve. With this dress, a plain black 
four-in-hand tie was worn. 

Overcoat. Although the double-breasted 
ulster type of overcoat was the one in general 
use throughout the war, officers, when climatic 
conditions made it advisable, were sometimes 
permitted to wear a short double-breasted, 
olive-drab coat, lined with sheepskin, and hav- 
ing a six-inch rolling, sheepskin collar, dyed 
beaver shade. Short olive-drab coats of the 
mackinaw type were also issued to certain 
classes of enlisted men, such as motorcyclists 
and transport drivers. 

Olive-drab sweaters with standing collar 
were worn, when needed, over the shirt by both 
officers and enlisted men. No insignia of any 
sort was displayed upon them. Tan driving 
gloves, or olive-drab woolen gloves were worn 
by both officers and enlisted men. The sword 
belts of officers serving abroad had a leather 
strap which passed over the right shoulder. 
Swords were not carried by dismounted offi- 
cers upon active service and were not as a rule 
worn by officers or enlisted men either abroad 
or at home. 


In order to give adequate rank to the chief 
officers of our army, which by the end of the 
war numbered four million men, nearly half of 
whom were in France, Congress restored the 
grades of general and lieutenant-general. For 
the former grade, the insignia was four silver 
stars ; for the latter grade, a large silver star, 
placed midway between two smaller stars. 

Decorations. On Jan. 12, 1918, the follow- 
ing decorations were authorized to be awarded 
for military service against an armed enemy 
under circumstances which did not justify the 
award of the medal of honor. They were 
awarded to both officers and enlisted men. 

Distinguished-service Cross. A bronze cross 
with an eagle in the center suspended from a 
blue ribbon having a narrow edging of red and 
white upon both sides. 

Distinguished-service Medal. A bronze 
medal and a ribbon of appropriate design. 

Campaign badges were also issued for the 
various campaigns in which our troops partici- 
pated and Congress also authorized the accept- 
ance by members of our forces of decorations 
conferred upon them by the governments of 


our allies. Members of the Red Cross wore a 
brassard of white cloth with a red cross, on the 
left upper arm; members of military police 
wore one of blue denim with the letters M. P. 
in white, on the upper right arm. 

Army aviators were at first a part of the 
Signal Corps, but were afterwards organized 
as a separate corps. They wore a silver- 
embroidered, double-winged shield upon the left 
breast. All aviators were commissioned officers. 
Enlisted men of the air service wore white 
crossed propellers upon a field of dark blue, on 
the right sleeve, directly below the shoulder. 

Army nurses (female) wore the regular 
nurse's uniform indoors. Their outdoor uni- 
form consisted of a navy blue skirt, blouse, 
overcoat and hat. On either side of the collar 
of the coat were the letters U. S. and the device 
of the medical corps. A white or navy blue 
waist with a plain black four-in-hand tie was 
authorized for wear when climatic conditions 
made this advisable. The hat was flat-topped 
and broad-brimmed, and was straw in summer 
and felt in winter. 


Telephone operators (female) were a part 
of the signal corps. Their uniform was com- 
posed of a dark blue skirt, white or dark blue 
waist, black four-in-hand tie, dark blue coat 
and dark blue overseas cap. They wore the 
crossed flags and torch of their corps upon 
the left side of the cap and the same device 
upon both sides of the collar of their coat, 
having the letters U. S. in front. On the left 
arm they wore a white brassard with a tele- 
phone displayed thereon in dark blue. 

Authorized workers of the Y. M. C. A., the 
Knights of Columbus, the Salvation Army and 
other organizations recognized by the War De- 
partment wore practically the same uniform as 
that of our troops, with the device of their or- 
ganization displayed upon it, usually upon the 
upper right arm. 

Ambulance drivers (female) wore an olive- 
drab skirt, leather puttees, an olive-drab, 
single-breasted frock coat and an olive-drab 
cap shaped like the oversea cap, but flat on 
top. On the front of the cap and on the right 
arm was a small red cross. A waist belt of tan 
leather was also worn. 


Each division of our army had a separate 
device which was worn upon the left arm, imme- 
diately below the shoulder, by both officers and 
enlisted men. These devices were not, however, 
in general use until the latter part of the war. 

The marines who formed a part of our fight- 
ing land forces wore a uniform similar to that 
of the army, but of a slightly darker and 
greener shade of drab. The front of their 
cap, the service hat, and steel helmet, bore 
the device of their corps, an eagle-surmounted 
globe and an anchor. 



THE earliest military costume worn by 
English troops which was in any way 
distinctive of the country was the white coat 
with the red cross upon the back and breast. 
This early form of uniform, if it may be so 
called, was common during the Middle Ages, 
and was usually worn by men-at-arms and 
archers. The Scots at this period favored a 
blue tunic upon which was displayed the X- 
shaped cross of St. Andrew. In 1485, Henry 
VH organized the yeomen of the guard, which 
may be considered as the first formation of a 
regular standing military force in England. 
What the uniform of this corps was is not 
stated, but in the reign of Henry VIII it be- 
came scarlet, ornamented with black velvet and 
gold and has remained ever since unchanged. It 
is still the dress of the "Beef Eaters" who guard 


the Tower of London and forms a curious con- 
trast to the serviceable khaki of the present 
day. These yeomen of the guard are said to 
have been the first English troops to use the 
red coat, which has since become the standard 
color for the British soldier. White coats, 
however, did not altogether disappear until a 
much later period. In the latter part of Henry 
VIII's reign, some of his troops were directed to 
wear a blue coat, trimmed with scarlet, and 
parti-colored hose, the right leg being scarlet 
and the left leg blue with a red stripe down 
the outer side. 

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the 
infantry wore blue or green coats and the 
artillery red. Officers were distinguished from 
men by sashes worn around the waist. Half 
armor was quite generally worn in active ser- 
vice by knights and nobles at this period, and 
it remained in use until the early part of the 
eighteenth century. The steel cap, buff coat, 
top boots and steel cuirass was usually the 
dress of the cavalry under Charles I and Oliver 

The present Household Troops, the First 


and Second Life Guards, the Dragoon Guards, 
and the Grenadier and Coldstream Guards 
were organized by Charles II. Personal badges 
of rank existed before the establishment of the 
standing army, but after the restoration of 
Charles II we begin to find regulations regard- 
ing them. At this time it was ordered that a 
captain of horse be armed cap-a-pied with 
plumes on his head and his horse's head (color 
not stated) and that he was to carry a white 
truncheon charged on his right thigh. A lieu- 
tenant of horse was to be armed to the knee and 
carry a truncheon of different design from that 
of a captain. In the Foot Guards a captain 
wore a gilt gorget and carried a pike; a lieu- 
tenant had a steel gorget studded with gold 
and bore a partisan ; and an ensign had a gor- 
get of silver and a half pike. Sergeants car- 
ried halberds. Field officers do not appear to 
have had any especially distinctive marks to 
indicate their grade. General officers wore 
body armor and carried short batons. A type 
of epaulet, formed by bows of ribbon (color 
not stated), worn on the right shoulder only, 
was in use as an insignia of rank for officers 
from about 1660 to 1700. 


In the reign of Queen Anne, when Marl- 
borough was winning his great victories, armor, 
except for cavalry, was completely discarded 
and the infantryman wore a scarlet cutaway 
coat, buff breeches, long black leggins coming 
weU above the knee, and a cocked hat. Officers 
wore a wide brimmed hat ornamented with 
feathers, or the same type of head dress as that 
worn by the men. The flowing wig and the 
pigtail belong to this period. 

Wings of cloth with scalloped ends orna- 
mented with gold or silver lace came into vogue 
as a badge for officers, early in the eighteenth 
century. They were worn on both shoulders 
and remained in use in certain branches of the 
service for nearly a hundred years. Sashes, 
probably red in color, and fringed with gold 
or silver, were worn around the waist by all 
officers during both the periods of the ribbon 
epaulet and the wing. 

Epaulets of gold or silver made their ap- 
pearance about 1750. They were worn either 
singly or in pairs, according to rank, and were 
without any distinctive devices. The author 
has been unable to discover any regulations 


regarding them, but it is probable that general 
and field oflScers wore two, captains one on the 
right shoulder and subalterns one on the left 
shoulder. This fashion of wearing one or two 
epaulets, according to rabk, continued to be 
practiced until about 1830. The bearskin hat 
became the military headdress for the heavy 
infantry in the reign of George III but about 
1800 was replaced by the shako. A general 
order issued May 4, 1796, prescribes that all 
ofiicers of the infantry of the line shall, in the 
future, have the different articles of their regi- 
mental dress here specified made according to 
the following directions: 

A crimson and gold cord round the hat with 
crimson and gold rosettes brought to the edge 
of the brim. The sword to have a brass guard, 
pommel and shell ; gilt with gold, with the grip 
of twisted silver wire ; the blade to be straight, 
to be at least an inch broad at the shoulder 
and thirty-two inches in length. The sword 
knot to be crimson and gold in stripes. The 
gorget to be gilt with gold, with the king's 
cypher and crown and to be worn with a rib- 
bon and a rosette at each end, of the color of 


the regimental facing. The Dress Regvdations 
of 1831 prescribe the following insignia of 
rank for commissioned officers : 

Field Marshal Scarlet double-breasted coat 

with two rows of but- 
tons of nine Oach; em- 
broidered collar and cuff. 
Gold epaulets with em- 
broidered strap and cres- 
cent and a device of two 
batons and a crown upon 
the strap 

General Same coat as for 'a field 

marshal; epaulets to have 
crossed sword and baton, 
surmounted by !a crown. 

Lieutenant General Same coat as that of a gen- 
eral, except that buttons 
are placed by threes and 
there is no embroidery 
upon the cufF 

Major General Same coat, except that it 

has ten buttons arranged 
by twos 'and the cuff is 
blue embroidered with 
gold. Same device upon 
the epaulets 

Brigadier General Same coat as that of a ma- 
jor general omitting the 
embroidery upon the cufF. 
Epaulets are without de- 

Colonel of Staff Scarlet single-breasted coat, 

nine buttons equal dis- 
tances apart, blue collar 
'and cufFs, gold epaulets 
without device. 


Aid-de-Camp to King Same as for colonel of staff, 

except that epaulets show 
garter badge with W. R. 
in center, surmounted by 
a crown 

Field Officers of Cavalry have upon the strap 
of the epaulet the following devices : 

Colonel Crown and Star 

Lieutenant Colonel Crown 

Major ■, Star 

The epaulets of captains and lieutenants to 
be without device, but all officers to wear 
epaulets upon both shoulders. Infantry, Foot 
Guards, Field Officers, Captains and Subal- 
terns are to have distinctions in respect to the 
size and shape of the bullion for the three 
ranks, all to wear the badge of their regiment 
in silver upon the gold of the strap. 

Regimental Devices. 

Grenadier Guards .W. R. with crown above and 

grenade below 
Coldstream Guards Star of Garter with crown 

'above and rose below 
Scotch Fusiliers St. Andrew's star with 

crown above and thistle 


Infantry of the Line. The epaulets of field 
officers consist of a plain gold lace and solid 


gold crescent, the king's cypher to be em- 
broidered upon the strap. The bullion of a 
colonel and lieutenant colonel to be 3J inches 
deep, that of a major, 3 inches in depth. For 
captains, gold lace and silk stripes of color of 
regimental facing with solid crescent and 
2^ inch bullion. For subalterns : Same as for 
captains, except that bullion is smaller. Offi- 
cers of flank companies to wear wings instead 
of epaulets. 

Light Infantry and Fusiliers. Field officers 
to wear same epaulets as for Infantry of the 
Line, all other officers wings. 

Highland Regiments. Same as for Infantry 
of the Line, with the addition of a thistle to the 
strap of the epaulet. 

In 1846 a field marshal wore a scarlet, 
double-breasted coat with blue collars and cuff 
embroidered aU around. In place of epaulets 
he had an aiguillette on the right shoulder. 
The insignia for other general officers remained 
unchanged. The devices of crown and star, 
crown, or star, were added to the epaulets of 
all field officers, without regard to arm of ser- 
vice. Captains and lieutenants of light infan- 
try continued to wear wings. 


In 1865 epaulets and wings were abolished 
and badges of rank were displayed upon each 
side of the gold oak leaf embtoidered collar of 
the coat, near the front. The various grades 
were designated in the following manner : 

Field Marshal Two crossed batons of 

crimson velvet on a 
wreath of silver laurel 

General Silver crown and star 

Lieutenant Colonel Silver crown 

Major Cieneral Silver star 

Brigadier General Crown and star in silver 

upon a collar of plain 

General officers wore upon the left shoulder 
a double gold cord under which the sash was 

Field Officers. Lace around the top and 
bottom of the collar and the following devices : 

Colonel Crown and star 

Lieutenant Colonel Crown 

Major Star 

Lme Officers. Lace around top of collar 
and the following devices : 

Captain .Crown and star 

Lieutenant Crown 

Ensign Star 


This insignia was in use during both the 
Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny. 

In 1864 the same regulations were in force 
except that the coats of all officers were made 
single-breasted. No important changes were 
made in the uniforms of officers until 1883, when 
badges of rank were again transferred to the 
shoulder, the shoulder knot, similar in form 
to that in present use, taking the place of the 
epaulet. It was at this time that stars became 
the insignia of captains and lieutenants. The 
badges of rank prescribed by the regulations 
of that year were as follows : 

Field Marshal Crossed batons on a wreath 

of silver with a crown 

Lieutenant Colonel Crossed sword land baton 

with crown above 

Major General Crossed sword and baton 

with star above 

Brigadier General Crossed sword and baton 

Colonel Crown with two stars be- 

Lieutenant Colonel Crown with one star below 

Major Crown 

Captain Two stars 

Lieutenant One star 

Second Lieutenant No device 

In 1902 the insignia of a captain was 


changed to three stars, that of a lieutenant to 
two stars and that of second lieutenant to one 
star, the insignia for the other grades remain- 
ing unchanged, and these regulations are in 
force at the present day. With their mess 
jackets, officers, except those of special regi- 
ments, do not wear knots but display their 
badges of rank upon shoulder pieces of cloth. 
The service dress for all branches of the army 
is a dark olive drab, the coat for all ranks 
being single-breasted, with bronze or brass but- 
tons and patch pockets. Rank badges of 
worsted embroidery are worn upon the cuff, 
which, except in Highland regiments, consists 
of a vertical piece, the rear edge three pointed, 
and the whole traced all around with ^-inch 
worsted lace. This cuff is placed forward from 
the center of the sleeve and over bands of 
worsted lace which completely encircle the arm, 
the number of bands for the different grades 
being as follows : 

Colonel Four rows of lace with five 

tracing braid between 

Lieutenant Colonel Three rows of lace, four of 

tracing braid 


Major Three rows of lace with 

tracing braid between 

Captain .Two rows of lace 

Lieutenant One row of lace 

In the Highland Regiments the cuff is of 
gauntlet form of the same number of braids of 
lace, however, as that worn in other branches 
of the service. Badges of rank are placed below 
this cuff, the device which is first upon the 
shoulder knot being nearest the back of the 
sleeve. General officers wear their badges of 
rank in gilt metal upon the shoulder. 

Non-commissioned officers now wear one 
chevron on the right arm point downwards, ex- 
tending from seam to seam and placed midway 
between the elbow and the shoulder. The 
author has been unable to ascertain exactly 
when they were adopted, but they have been in 
use for at least twenty-five years. A sergeant 
has three stripes of gold, a lance sergeant three 
stripes of worsted, a corporal two stripes of 
worsted and a lance sergeant one stripe of 
worsted. Sergeants and lance sergeants in full 
dress also wear a worsted crimson sash across 
the breast, the sash passing over the right 
shoulder. A sergeant major does not wear a 


chevron, but has a crown on the right sleeve, 
directly above the cuff. Facings in the British 
Army are according to the individual regiments 
and not according to the arm of the service. 
The uniform varies greatly in the different 
corps but the single-breasted, scarlet tunic, 
dark blue trousers, and blue cloth helmet of 
the infantry of the line is the one which is most 
commonly seen. Guards and Fusileers wear 
the bearskin in place of the helmet. The High- 
land Regiments have a short scarlet coat, plaid 
skirt of regimental pattern, fur sporran, short 
stockings, white leggins, and a feather bonnet. 
Rifle regiments are clad in dark green through- 
out. The artillery have a dark blue uniform, 
that of the Royal Horse Artillery consisting 
of a short jacket heavily braided across the 
breast with yellow, riding breeches, knee boots 
and a busby; that of the foot branch of the 
service being similar in cut to that of the in- 
fantry, faced with red. In the cavalry the 
Life Guards have a red coat, white breeches, 
top boots and a steel cuirass and helmet, and 
the Horse Guards the same uniform, except 
that the coat is dark blue. Hussars have a 


braided coat, busby, riding breeches, and knee 
boots, the color of the uniform differing accord- 
ing to regiment. Lancers have a double- 
breasted coat with a different colored breast 
piece and the head dress is the vihlan helmet. 
In most lancer regiments the coats are blue. 
Dragoon Guards and Dragoons have a single- 
breasted red coat, dark blue trousers and a 
steel helmet with plume. The Scots Greys 
wear a bearskin in place of the helmet. Officers 
in most branches of the service when in full 
dress wear a crimson sash around the waist, 
passed over the sword belt and tied on the left 


Decorations. Medals are worn in full dress 
on the left breast, suspended from a single bar, 
overlapping if necessary, on a line between the 
first and second buttons of the coat. In ser- 
vice dress they are not worn but instead a 
^-inch ribbon of each decoration or medal is 
stitched to the coat, side by side, in the same 
position as described above, arranged in as 
many rows as may be necessary. 

The two best known military decorations are 


the Distinguished Service Order and the Vic- 
toria Cross. The Distinguished Service Order, 
instituted in 1886, is for officers only. The 
cross is white enamel, edged with gold and hav- 
ing a red center with gold crown surrounded 
with a wreath of green laurel. The ribbon is 
red, bordered with light blue. The "Victoria 
Cross, instituted in 1856, is awarded to both 
officers and enlisted men for deeds of personal 
■ bravery. Its cross is bronze and its ribbon, 
red for the army, and blue for the navy. Ser- 
vice medals, usually of silver, circular in form 
and about the size of our half dollar, are given 
to all officers and men who participate in cam- 
paigns. Silver bars, worn on the ribbon, are 
granted for each battle. Each service medal 
has a distinctive ribbon. 


Native troops form a large portion of the 
army which guards England's possessions in 
the Far East, and with the exception of the 
Mutiny, have always proved loyal and efficient. 
Even in those terrible days, many native sol- 


diers remained true to their sworn allegiance 
and did noble service in helping stamp out 
that carnival of blood. As now organized, they 
are represented in every arm of the service and 
are officered in part by white men and in part 
by men of their own race. As a matter of pre- 
caution, however, no native officer is allowed to 
hold a higher rank than that of major. Non- 
commissioned officers in Indian regiments are 
natives. Although native officers and non- 
commissioned officers wear the same insignia of 
rank in their respective grades as those worn by 
their white comrades, their titles are Indian 
instead of English. These titles and the Eng- 
lish grades to which they correspond are as 
follows : 

Rissaldar Major (cavalry) Major 

Subedar Major (infantry 
and artillery) Major 

Rissaldar (davalry) Captain 

Subedar (infantry and ar- 
tillery) Captain 

Jemedar (aU branches) .... Lieutenant 

Kot Duffadar (cavalry) .... Sergeant-Major 

Havildar Major (infantry 
and a,rtillery) Sergeant-Major 

Havildar (infantry and ar- 
tillery) Sergeant 

Duffadar (cavalry) Sergeant 


Naique (infantry) Corporal 

Las Duffadar (cavalry and 

artillery Corporal 

Las Naique (infantry and 

artillery) Lance Corporal 

When the war with Germany broke out, the 
English had a small but highly trained regular 
army which was scattered throughout the globe, 
and a territorial organization similar to our 
militia. That part of the regular army which 
was stationed in the British Isles was at once 
sent to France, where against terrific odds, they 
upheld the best traditions of their service, and 
contributed largely in the stopping of Von 
Kluck's drive. 

The territorials were at once called to the 
colors and new units were formed, all being 
recruited up to full war strength as speedily as 
possible. Britain's colonies also rallied to her 
support and sent large contingents of troops 
to aid her in her fight against the Hun. India 
proved her loyalty also, and native troops 
fought bravely for the Union Jack. 

The uniforms worn by British troops in the 
World War did not differ greatly from the 
service dress previously described. The High- 


land regiments retained their kilts, which, how- 
ever, were olive-drab in color, rather than that 
of the regimental tartan. The style of coat 
for the enlisted man remained unchanged, but 
that for all officers had a turn-back collar sim- 
ilar to that of a civilian coat, and had only 
four buttons instead of five. 

General officers wore a gorget patch of scar- 
let two and one half inches long and one and 
one quarter inches wide, pointed at the end, 
with a narrow gold stripe along the center and 
a small gold button near the point. A patch 
was worn upon each lapel. 

Staff Officers wore the same gorget patch ex- 
cept that the center stripe was of silk instead 
of gold. 

Officers of the Army Service Corps, Army 
Medical Service, Ordnance Department and 
Pay Department had blue gorget patches in- 
stead of scarlet. 

All officers wore a drab shirt and a four-in- 
hand tie of the same color. The caps of general 
and staff officers had a band of color to match 
the gorget. General officers and certain staff 
officers wore the insignia of their rank on the 
shoulder instead of the cuff. 


Dismounted officers and men wore an olive 
drab spiral puttee, while mounted officers and 
men had either the leather puttee or the riding 
boot, both being of tan leather. 

All officers wore the Sam Browne tan leather 
belt with a supporting strap over the shoulder. 

Swords were not carried by officers except 
upon occasions of ceremony. When worn, they 
were usually thrust through a throg attached 
to the belt, although some mounted officers 
passed tKem through a «lit in the left-hand 
side of the ssddle cloth, behind the saddle. As 
a general r^,^ dismounted officers carried a 
cane, usually of light/colored wood and having 
a curved handle, while mounted officers usually 
carried a riding crop. 

The overcoat for both officers and men was 
olive-drab and of ulster pattern. For mounted 
troops it was shorter than for foot soldiers. 
All officers wore their badges of rank in gilt 
metal upon the shoulder pieces of the overcoat. 

Steel helmets came into use during the sec- 
ond year of the war, and were worn by both 
officers and men on active service in France. 
They were similar in form to those worn by our 


troops. Gas masks also formed part of the 
military equipment at the front. 

Canadian troops usually combined the maple 
leaf with their regimental badge and had the 
word "Canada" in brass letters on the end of 
their shoulder straps. Australian, New Zea- 
land and South African troops when not wear- 
ing the steel helmet, wore a campaign hat with 
an indentation down the middle, sometimes 
having the brim turned up and fastened to the 
crown upon the right side. Native East Indian 
troops, although clad in olive drab like the 
rest of the army, wore the turban for a head 
dress. Insignia of rank for all Colonial troops 
was the same as that for the British army. 




THE early uniforms of the French army 
appear to have been white and we know 
that some at least of the regiments which ac- 
companied Lafayette to this country to aid 
Washington in our struggle against Great 
Britain were dressed in that color. The in- 
signia of rank for officers was probably 
epaulets, worn in much the same manner as in 
our own army but the author is unable to 
state authoritativdy that such was the fact. 
The Swiss Guard of Louis XVI, who fell in the 
defence of that kind hearted but weak monarch, 
wore red cutaway coats, faced with black vel- 
vet and ornamented with white or silver braid, 
white vests, breeches, and leggins. The head 
covering for the men was a bearskin hat 
with a white plume on the left side, and for the 


officers, a three cornered hat with a silver 
cockade. Privates and sergeants wore white 
worsted epaulets, and officers epaulets of gold, 
and a gilt gorget. 

The National Guard who stormed the Bas- 
tile on July 14, 1789, had for their uniform a 
bearskin hat, a blue coat faced with silver, 
with white epaulets upon the shoulders, a red 
vest, and white breeches and leggins. In the 
early days of the Republic, the cocked hat with 
the red, white and blue cockade, for the men, 
and plume for officers, was the favorite head 
dress for nearly all soldiers, but when Na- 
poleon became emperor, we find the tall bear- 
skin worn upon the heads of the best of his in- 
fantry. Uniform coats under the Republic 
were usually dark blue faced with white and 
having red cuffs and this style of dress retained 
its popularity under the Empire. Breeches, 
leggins and vests were usually white; mounted 
officers wearing boots when on active service. 
Gold epaulets were worn upon both shoulders 
by all officers but in the case of captains and 
subalterns only the left epaulet was fringed. 
Field officer's epaulets were without distinctive 


devices but those of generals were marked in 
the following manner : 

Marshal of France ..Four gold stars 

General of Division Three stars 

General of Brigade Two stars 

The gilt gorget was worn by officers of in- 
fantry and artillery. The sword belt was 
usually of white leather and was worn below 
the rather short vest, passing beneath the tails 
of the coat. In the case of dismounted officers, 
it had a frog on the left side through which 
the sword was passed. 

Between the fall of Napoleon and the pres- 
ent day the uniform of the French Army 
underwent many changes until it attained its 
present form. Blue and red are the colors of the 
modern Army of France and nearly all its uni- 
forms are composed of these colors. Infantry 
of the line have a dark blue coat with red 
worsted epaulets, red trousers without welt or 
stripe, and a red-topped, blue-banded, visored 
cap, ornamented with a blue pompon. The 
spahis, officers and men, wear scarlet coats and 
light blue trousers, these being the only red 
coats seen in the French Army. Cuirassiers 


and dragoons wear dark blue coats, steel hel- 
mets with black horse-hair plume hanging down 
behind and a red upright plume on the left 
side, and red breeches with a narrow blue stripe. 
The epaulets of the cuirassiers are red, of the 
dragoons white. Hussars have a light blue coat 
and shako, and red trousers with light blue 
stripe. The coats of the dragoons have rows 
of black braid across the breast, those of the 
cuirassiers are plain. Artillery have a dark 
blue uniform throughout, with red facings, the 
coats of both officers and men being braided 
across the breast. The Republican Guard wear 
a dark blue coat and light blue trousers with 
a dark blue stripe. The head dress for mounted 
men is the dragoon helmet, for foot soldiers 
the light blue shako with a red pompon. Both 
officers and men wear the number of their regi- 
ment, or the device of their staff department, 
upon the standing coUar of the coat. 

Insignia of rank is displayed upon the sleeves 
of the coat, and upon the cap. It is also shown 
in the form of epaulet. General officers in full 
dress have a double-breasted blue coat, a cha- 
peau, white trousers and knee boots. Epaulets 


having three silver stars for a division general 
and two silver stars for a brigadier general 
are worn with this uniform, and a red sash 
passes over the right shoulder (under the 
epaxilet) and is secured on the left side. The 
collar and cuffs are embroidered with gold oak 
leaves all the way around. In service dress 
these oflScers have a dark blue blouse with five 
frogs of black mohair braid across the breast, 
red cap, red trousers with broad black stripe, 
and knee boots. 

Infantry officers have a plain, single- 
breasted, dark blue tunic with red collar, a red- 
topped, blue-banded cap, and red trousers, 
ornamented with a black stripe; artillery offi- 
cers have their coats braided across the breast 
like those of the men, but the coats of the 
officers of cavalry are like those of the infantry 
in form, but differ in color and facings, accord- 
ing to classification of service, those of the 
heavy cavalry being dark blue and those of the 
light cavalry light blue. 

A sword belt of black leather with but a 
single sling and no hook is worn under the coat, 
by both officers and men. 


Cap Insignia. General Officers. Gold oak 
leaves around band, three vertical stripes of 
gold on front, back and each side, forming a 
knot on top. 

Colonel Five horizontal and three 

vertical stripes 

Lieutenant Colonel Three gold and two silver 

horizontal stripes and two 
gold and one silver ver- 
tical stripes 

Major Four gold horizontal and 

three vertical stripes. 

Captain Three gold horizontal and 

two vertical stripes 

Lieutenant Two gold horizontal stripes 

and one vertical stripe 

Sous Lieutenant One gold horizontal and one 

gold vertical stripe 

The horizontal stripes on all caps pass com- 
pletely around the band, the vertical stripes 
are on the front, rear and sides and unite in 
the form of a knot on the top of the cap. 

Sleeve Insignia. General Officers. Full 
Dress. Gold oak leaf embroidery encircling the 
cuff. Service Dress. A knot of five strands of 
black braid with two or three silver stars dis- 
placed thereon, according to rank. 

Officers of infantry, engineers, spahis and 
of the Republican Guard, straight gold stripes. 


encircling the cuff; oiBcers of cuirassiers, dra- 
goons, chasseurs a cheval, ,hussars, chasseurs 
d'Afrique, zephirs, and of the gendarmerie, 
straight silver stripes; officers of zouaves, tur- 
cos and artillery, gold stripes arranged in the 
form of a knot. 

Colonel Five stripes 

Lieutenant-Colonel Three gold and two silver, 

or the reverse. 

Major Four stripes 

Captain Three stripes 

Lieutenant Two stripes 

Sous Lieutenant One stripe 

Shottldek Insignia. General Officers. Two 
gold epaulets with the stars of their rank 
within the crescents. 

Colonel Two gold or silver epaulets, 

according to arm of ser- 

Lieutenant-Colonel Two epaulets, the top of sil- 
ver and the fringe of 

Major An epaulet on the right 

shoulder and 'a contre 
epaulet on the left 

Captain Two epaulets 

Lieutenant An epaulet upon the left 

shoulder and a contre 
epaulet upon the right 

Sous Lieutenant An epaulet upon the right 

shoulder and a contre 
epaulet upon the left 


A centre epaulet is an epaulet without fringe. 
Epaulets differ in form according to rank, 
those of captains and subalterns having a 
longer, but less thick fringe than those of offi- 
cers of higher rank. No epaulets, save those of 
general officers, bear any devices. 

Non-commissioned Officers. Insignia of rank 
is worn by non-commissioned officers in the form 
of a diagonal stripe, placed above the cuff and 
extending across about four fifths of the width 
of the sleeve. 

Sergeant Major Two gold or silver stripes, 

according to arm of ser- 

Sergeant One gold or silver stripe 

Corporal Two red or yellow stripes 

Corporals of turcos, chasseurs a pied, chas- 
seurs d'Afrique, and spahis have yellow stripes, 
all others have red stripes. First-class pri- 
vates wear a single red or yellow stripe. 

The world owes much to gallant France, 
who, with the assistance of a comparatively 
few British regulars, stopped the first mad 
rush of the tiermans, hurled them back almost 
from the gates of Paris and held them at bay 


until her allies could come to her assistance. 
Had it not been for the superb fighting quali- 
ties of her soldiers, and the matchless leadership 
of her generals, the Kaiser's dream of world 
conquest might have come true. 

When the war burst with startling sudden- 
ness upon amazed Europe, the French troops 
mobilized at once, and threw themselves across 
the path of the invader. The defence of heroic 
Belgium gave them time to effect their mobiliza- 
tion and enabled them to rush men, guns and 
supplies to the threatened points, although the 
leeway was fearfully short. 

The uniforms of the French army during the 
first year of the war were soon found to be 
illy adapted to modern conditions, the red 
trousers of the infantry especially being visible 
from enemy observation balloons and aeroplanes 
at a considerable distance, but France was 
fighting for her very life, and was unable to 
effect any changes in the clothing of her troops 
until the British had raised, trained, and trans- 
ported an army large enough to take over a 
part of her line and thus afford her a much 
needed relief. 


For the first two years of the war, therefore, 
the uniform of the greater part of the French 
army consisted of a red-topped blue-banded 
cap, a light blue overcoat and red trousers, 
and this uniform did not entirely disappear 
back of the lines throughout the war. Event- 
ually, however, the French were able to effect 
some much needed changes in the garb of her 
fighting men, and her new service uniform with 
which by 1918 all of her first line troops were 
supplied was both handsome and suited to the 
needs of modern warfare. The color was hori- 
zon blue for all branches of the service, except 
that khaki was adopted for colonial troops. 
The coat, of a universal pattern, was a single- 
breasted sack for both officers and men. The 
trousers were long for unmounted and short 
for mounted troops. They were secured with 
worsted spiral or tan leather puttees, after the 
English fashion. The cap was straight-sided 
and flat-topped, and in case of officers was 
braided with gold or silver, according to arm 
of service and rank. In battle areas a steel 
helmet was worn, which was rather shallow, 
had a small ridge along the top, and was turned 
down like a visor in front and rear. 


The overcoat was double-breasted for in- 
fantry and single-breasted for cavalry. In 
the case of the infantry, it was made to button 
back away from the knees, so as to allow 
greater freedom in marching. 

Insignia of rank in the case of officers was 
changed, except in the case of generals, to 
short horizontal stripes of gold or silver worn 
upon the cuiF of each sleeve. The number of 
stripes remained unchanged, but in the case of 
officers above the rank of captain, there was 
a small space between the third and fourth 
stripes. General officers wore silver stars upon 
the cuff, according to rank. 

Non-commissioned officers wore an oblique 
stripe about twice as long as that of officers 
upon the cuff, the color and arrangement re- 
maining unchanged. 

Officers wore the Sam Browne tan leather 
belt with the single supporting strap. The 
Croix de Guerre was awarded to both officers 
and enlisted men for bravery in action or other 
service of exceptional merit. It was a bronze 
medal in the form of a Maltese cross with two 
crossed swords. The ribbon was green with 
five red stripes. 



During the Middle Ages, Spain was one of 
the great powers of Europe and her soldiers 
proved their courage and skill upon many a 
hard-fought battlefield. Her pikemen had the 
reputation of being well nigh invincible and 
her fleets were seen upon every sea. She held 
vast colonial possessions and was an extremely 
rich and powerful nation. Since then she has 
sunk to the level of a third rate power, but her 
soldiers and sailors are still brave fighters, al- 
though often illy fed and insufficiently equipped. 

The Spanish Army as it exists today consists 
of seven army corps totalling about seventy 
regiments of infantry, thirty of cavalry and 
twenty-five of artillery, besides the usual staff 
troops. The uniform, with some exceptions, is 
dark blue for infantry and artillery and light 
blue for cavalry. Infantry have red trousers 
with a black stripe; artillery, blue trousers 
with a red stripe; cavalry, except dragoons, 
light blue trousers with white or yellow stripes. 
Most trouser stripes are double for both offi- 
cers and men. The head dress of the lancers, 

SPAIN 109 

dragoons, and king's escort is the steel helmet 
with spike and falling plume; for the hussars 
and mounted jagers, the shako; and for all 
other branches of the service a rather high- 
crowned flat-topped cap, ornamented with a 
short erect plume, or a pompon. General offi- 
cers in full dress have a blue helmet with white 
plume, a single-breasted dark blue tunic, with 
gold collar and epaulets, dark blue trousers 
with gold stripe, and a red sash, worn over the 
right shoulder and around the waist and tied 
on the left side. In service uniform the white 
hat replaces the helmet, the trousers are red 
without stripes, gold shoulder cords take the 
place of epaulets and the sash passes only 
around the waist. The general staff have a 
white cap with short blue plume, dark blue 
single-breasted tunic, dark blue trousers with 
light blue stripe, and a light blue sash, worn 
around the waist and tied on the right side. 
The coats of infantry officers are dark blue 
with seven rows of black braid across the breast 
and three rows of buttons and their cap is grey- 
brown with a red plume. The men wear the 
same type of uniform except that their coats 


are not braided across the breast and have red 
or green shoulder pieces and collars. 

The lancer uniform is light blue throughout 
faced with white, the coats of both officers and 
men being double-breasted. The dragoons and 
mounted jagers have the same uniform as that 
of the lancers except that the trousers of the 
former are red with light blue stripes, and the 
head dress of the latter is the shako, instead of 
the helmet. All hussar jackets are braided 
across the breast with gold or yellow braid. 
The color of the Prince's Regiment is light blue 
throughout, that of the Regiment de Pavia is 
red for the coat and light blue for the trousers. 
The artillery uniform consists of a white cap 
with red plume, blue single-breasted coat and 
blue trousers with red stripe. Overcoats are 
light blue for cavalry and dark blue for all 
other branches of the service. Sword belts are 
worn underneath the coat, the swords of the 
infantry and artillery officers being attached 
to a short sling, passed through a slit in the 
left side; swords of other officers, and of en- 
listed men armed with that weapon being al- 
lowed to hang below the coat. 

SPAIN 111 

Insignia of rank is worn on the cuffs of the 
coat by both officers and non-commissioned offi- 
cers in the form of gold, silver or worsted em- 
broidery extending across the top and down the 
back of the cuff. Except in the case of gen- 
erals, stars are worn above or below the em- 
broidery to further distinguish the different 
grades. Officers of the general staff, infantry, 
artillery, medical corps, pay corps and carabin- 
eers have gold-embroidered cuffs, officers of 
lancers, dragoons, mounted jagers, and trans- 
port corps have silver instead of gold. The 
hussars have a special form of sleeve decoration 
consisting of a double knot of gold braid. In- 
signia for the various grades is as follows : 

Captain General '. Three stripes of twisted 

gold braid 
Lieutenant General Two stripes of twisted gold 

Major General One stripe of twisted gold 

Brigadier General One stripe of twisted silver 

Colonel Three stripes of plain gold . 

or silver braid with three 

eight-pointed stars below 

Lieutenant-Colonel Two stripes and two stars 

Major One stripe of gold and one 

of silver and one gold 

star and one silver star 


Captain Three stripes of gold or sil- 
ver braid with three eight- 
pointed stars above 

Lieutenant Two stripes 'and two stars 

Bnsign One stripe and one star 

Staff Sergeant One stripe 

First Sergeant Three stripes of gold or sil-" 

ver braid of a narrower 
pattern than that worn by 

Sergeant Two stripes 

Corporal Three stripes of scarlet 

cloth like those of a first 

Lance Corporal Two stripes 

In cavalry regiments the embroidery on the 
cuff points upward in the form of a chevron but 
in all other branches of the service it is placed 
upon the cuff in the manner before described. 




THE recent German empire, a confedera- 
tion of separate kingdoms, of which the 
King of Prussia was emperor, did not come into 
existence until 1871, the first emperor being 
crowned at Versailles, while the troops were be- 
sieging Paris. Before the creation of the 
German empire, the soldiers of the various 
kingdoms wore the uniforms of their separate 
states and these differed so greatly that any 
attempt at a description of them is impossible 
in a work of this sort. 

Prussia as the largest Germanic State, natu- 
rally set the fashion in military dress for her 
smaller neighbors, but each little kingdom and 
duchy varied the dress of their troops to suit 
their own individual tastes. 

Badges of rank were not worn in the Prus- 


sian army until 1808, although some attempt 
had been made to distinguish officers from men 
before that time. In 1762 all the cavalry had 
white plumes on their hats, and as a mark of 
rank it was ordered that officers' plumes should 
have roots of black feathers, while those of non- 
commissioned officers should have black tips. 
Bavaria seems to have been ahead of Prussia 
in the matter of insignia of rank, for in 1774 
her officers wore the epaulet and gorget and 
about 1793 her War Minister devised a system 
of insignia in which rank was indicated by the 
buttons of the breast facings. 

About 1808 the shako became the head dress 
of all Prussian troops, except cuirassiers and 
ulhans, and rank badges were placed upon the 
officers' shoulder pieces which five years later 
became converted into epaulets. The spiked 
helmet, so common in the German Army today, 
was introduced by the Prussians in 1843 but 
as late as 1860 the infantry of many of the 
smaller kingdoms continued to wear the shako. 
In the German Army of the present day dark 
blue is the general color of the uniform of the 
infantry and artillery and light blue of the 


cavalry, although there are many exceptions 
to this rule. Except for some branches of the 
cavalry, and the jager, or rifle regiments, the 
spiked helmet is the universal head dress for all 
arms of the service. The Guard Corps, dra- 
goons, and some regiments of field artillery 
have plumes. Jagers wear the shako, hussars 
the busby and uhlans the lancer helmet, the top 
of which is shaped like a mortar board. The 
coats of both officers and men, other than those 
of uhlans and hussars, are single-breasted and 
not ornamented with braid. The collar and 
cuffs are usually red for the infantry, and 
black for the artillery, although many regi- 
ments have different colored facings. Infantry 
and artillery trousers are dark blue, the latter 
being plain and the former having a narrow 
red stripe. Uhlans have a double-breasted 
coat, the breast of which is of different color 
from that of the coat; and trousers to match 
the coat, usually without a stripe. Most of 
the coats are dark blue, the facings being of 
red, yellow, white or light blue, according to 
regiment. The hussars have a single-breasted 
coat, braided across the breast with five rows 


of gold or silver braid and their trousers dis- 
play a wider stripe than do those of the infan- 
try. The coats of the different regiments vary 
greatly in color but most of the trousers are 
light blue with yellow or white stripes, to match 
the breast facings. Insignia of rank for officers 
is in the form of shoulder knots or epaulets. 
Officers below the grade of major wear shoulder 
knots, all other officers epaulets. Shoulder 
knots are formed of half-moon shaped pieces 
of gold or silver embroidery (according to 
regiment) inclosing a cloth field of the color of 
the army corps to which the regiment belongs. 
On the field is displayed the regimental number 
and the insignia of rank. Epaulets for officers, 
other than generals, are of the same design as 
that of the shoulder knot, with the addition of 
gold or silver fringe. The epaulets of general 
officers are of silver bullion. Rank badges of 
the different grades are as follows : 

General Field Marshal Two gold crossed batons 

Colonel General Three gold stars 

General of Infantry or 

Cavalry Two gold stars 

Lieutenant General One gold star 

Major Gener'al Blank epaulet 

Colonel Two gold stars 

6EBMANY 117 

Lieutenant Colonel One gold stair 

Major Blank field 

Captain Two gold stars 

First Lieutenant One gold star 

Second Lieutenant Blank field 

The sword belt is worn under the coat, and 
officers, when in full dress, wear a silver sash 
around the waist, tied on the left side. 

Non-commissioned officers display the insig- 
nia of their rank upon the collar of the coat, 
the grades being distinguished in the following 
manner : 

Sergeant A stripe of gold or silver 

lace extending around the 
top of the collar and two 
large buttons, worn one on 
either side of the collar, 
directly above the shoul- 

Corporal A stripe of gold or silver 

lace, no buttons 

Lance Corpoi^I Two small buttons worn in 

the same manner as those 
of a sergeant, plain col- 

Musicians Overhanging wings on the 

top of their sleeves, those 
of sergeants being fringed 
with silver or gold 

When Germany proclaimed "Der Tag" and, 
disregarding solemn treaties, international law, 


the rules of civilized warfare, and the rights of 
humanity, started out to conquer the world, 
her armies were better equipped than those of 
any other power. Her general staff deemed 
success assured and failure impossible, and yet 
she failed, and government of the people, by the 
people and for the people did not perish from 
off the face of the earth. 

For many years previous to the war, Ger- 
many had been experimenting in field uniforms, 
endeavoring to secure one which would be best 
adapted to her purpose. In 1906 grey-green 
was accepted as the color and uniforms were 
manufactured in sufiicient quantities to outfit 
the entire army, but were not issued until 1914. 
These first uniforms, although of one standard 
color, followed the cut of the dress uniform, 
and were single- or double-breasted, according 
to the arm of the service. 

The original head dress was also retained, 
but was covered with grey-green cloth. When 
the helmet, busby or shako was not worn, 
officers wore a vizored cap and men one without 
a vizor, both being of service color. 

Epaulets were discarded by officers and dis- 


tinguishing badges transferred to a shoulder 
knot which was without stiffening. Shoulder 
knots of captains and lieutenants were not so 
wide as those of other officers, and were com- 
posed of three straight stripes of silver braid, 
interwoven with silk of the color of their king- 
dom, so as to appear like a number of small, 
single-striped pointed chevrons. A gold button 
was worn at the end nearest the collar and the 
badges of rank and number of the regiment 
were displayed in gilt. 

The kingdom color of Prussia was black, 
Bavaria, light blue, Saxony, pale green, Wur- 
tenburg and Hesse, red, and Mecklenburg, gold, 
blue and red. 

The shoulder knot of colonels, lieutenant- 
colonels and majors was shaped like those of 
our officers and was of silver braid interwoven 
with small bands of the kingdom color. Badges 
of rank and regimental number were displayed 
upon it in gUt. 

The shoulder knot of general officers was of 
the same size and design as that of a colonel, 
except that each band of silver and silk braid 
was edged on either side with gold, and in the 


case of a field marshal, the crossed batons were 
of silver. Badges of rank were in gold. 

Devices indicating degrees of rank formerly 
worn upon the epaulet remained unchanged. 
Collar insignia of non-commissioned officers 
remained as before. 

Some slight changes were made in the form 
of the shoulder knots of officers during the 
latter part of the war, but the general arrange- 
ment of rank was not altered. 

During the latter part of the war, also, all 
coats became single-breasted and of a universal 
pattern, without regard to the arm of the ser- 
vice. With these coats the shoulder pieces 
which had formerly been grey-green and some- 
times edged with the regimental facing, became, 
with a few exceptions, of an arm of the service 

Infantry, blue. Pioneers, black. Field Ar- 
tillery, scarlet. Foot Artillery, yellow. 

The cavalry, the guard troops, and the 
jagers, had special shoulder pieces which dif- 
fered in the various regiments. With most 
uniforms a patch of colored cloth was worn 
upon either side of the turn-down collar of the 


coat. They were usually scarlet for infantry 
and black for artillery with white or yellow 

Army corps numbers were worn on the patch. 

The overcoat for all branches of the service 
was a grey-green, double-breasted ulster. Offi- 
cers wore the knots of their rank upon the 
shoulders and enlisted men the facing of the 
arm of service to which they belonged. 

During the second year of the war, the Ger- 
mans adopted the steel helmet for all their 
troops in place of the former head covering. 
This helmet differed in form from any of those 
worn by the allied troops in that it was higher 
in the crown and came down further in back 
than in front; a peaked service cap was pre- 
scribed for enlisted men when the helmet was 
not worn, but does not appear to have come 
into general use. 

Leather equipment and boots were usually 
black. German officers did not wear the sup- 
porting sword belt strap on the right shoulder 
which was worn by allied officers. 

The chief decoration of the German army was 
the Iron Cross, a black cross-shaped medal 


with a silver border, suspended from a black 
ribbon edged with white. This was conferred 
upon both officers and men. With thfe field 
uniform, the medal was not worn but the rib- 
bon was passed through a buttonhole of the 
coat over the chest. 


Few, if any countries, have a greater 
diversity in uniforms than does this dual 
kingdom. Formed as it is of people sprung 
from a widely dissimilar stock, the dress of its 
troops varies almost as much as does the char- 
acter of its popidation, and no colors can be 
said to be standard. Dark and light blue, red, 
white, green, grey and brown are all seen in 
uniforms, known as Austrian and Hungarian, 
while head dress varies from the shako to 
the fez. 

Generals have two distinct dress and undress 
uniforms, known as Austrian and Hungarian. 
In the former uniform the coat is white for 
full dress and grey for undress; both being 
double^breast«d ; in the latter uniform the coat 


is scarlet for full dress and grey for undress. 
Both Hungarian coats are braided across the 
breast Hussar fashion and with the full dress 
an extra Hussar jacket of white trimmed with 
brown fur is worn over the left shoulder. Trou- 
sers are red with two gold stripes for Austrian 
full dress, dark grey with red broad stripe for 
undress; red with gold stripe and gold em- 
broidered front for Hungarian full dress and 
dark grey with red stripe for imdress. The 
head dress with the Austrian uniform is the 
chapeau surmounted with a falling plume of 
green feathers. A red busby with a white erect 
plume goes with the Hungarian full dress and 
a shako with the undress. Hussar boots with 
ornamented tops are worn with the Hungarian 
uniform, which is in every way an extremely 
rich dress. Perhaps the most striking uniform 
in the army is that of the Hungarian Life 
Guard. It is scarlet, of Hussar cut, heavily 
braided across the breast, on the cuffs, and on 
the front and sides of the breeches with silver. 
On the head is a black busby with blue bag and 
white plume, while over the left shoulder is 
worn a magnificent leopard skin. Truly it 


would be difficult to surpass this uniform for 
gorgeousness. Most of the higher officers con- 
nected with staff departments have a double- 
breasted coat reaching to the crotch, long tight- 
fitting trousers and a chapeau with a green 
feather plume. 

Chief of General Staff Dark green coat, blue grey 


Adjutant General Dark green coat and trou- 

Assistant Adjutant Gen- 
eral Dark green coat, blue grey 


Artillery Inspector Gen- 
eral Dark reddish brown coat, 

light blue trousers 

Quartermaster General Light blue coat, blue grey 


Auditor Genei'al White coat, light blue trou- 

AU of the above are Austrian full dress uni- 
forms. The trousers except in the case of 
Assistant Adjutant General have a broad gold 
stripe with a narrow red one extehding down 
its center. Undress trowsers have a broad red 
stripe, with two narrow black ones down the 
center. The cap is worn in place of the 
chapeau, when not in full dress. Austrian and 
Hungarian infantry both wear the shako. 


with full dress and the soft light blue cap when 
in serAdce rig. Their coats are dark blue and 
their trousers light blue. Hungarian troops 
of this branch of the service have an ornamental 
knot of yellow braid upon the front of their 
trousers, extending from the waistband half- 
way to the knee. Jagers wear a light green 
uniform faced with dark green, their head 
dress being a hat with a bunch of cock's 
feathers upon the left side. Dragoons have a 
light blue single-breasted coat, red trousers 
and a steel helmet surmounted by a cock's comb 
of the same metal. Hussars have both light 
and dark blue coats, braided with yellow, and 
red trousers ornamented with the knot. Their 
head dress is the shako. 

Uhlans wear a light blue, single-breasted coat 
with red collar and cuffs, red trousers and 
lancer helmets. The undress cap for all cav- 
alry is red in color and without a vizor. Artil- 
lery have reddish brown coats, light blue 
trousers and the shako. The head dress of 
all Bosnian troops is the red fez. Infantry 
have light blue uniforms faced with red and 
artillery brown coats faced with light blue, 
and red trousers. 


Insignia of rank is the same for both Aus^ 
trian and Hungarian troops and consists of 
an arrangement of stars worn upon the collar 
of the coat. 

General Officers Red collar, embroidered all 

around in gold 

Field Marshal A special form of embroid- 
ery, no device 

Genei'al Three silver stars, two be- 
low and one above 

Lieutenant-General Two silver stars arranged 


Major-General One silver star 

The collars of field officers, and of staff offi- 
cers of the same relative rank, are of gold or 
silver according to branch of service and have 
stars of the opposite metal. 

Colonel Three stars 

Lieutenant-Colonel Two stars 

Major One star 

The collars of captains and subalterns are 
without gold or silver braid. Captains wear 
three gold or silver stars, first lieutenants two 
and second lieutenants one. In service uni- 
forms, stars are displayed upon a field which 
extends from the front of the collar to the line 


of the shoulder, the remainder of the collar 
being of the color of the coat. Staff sergeants 
have a band of gold or silver around the bot- 
tom of the collar and three celluloid stars. 
Sergeants omit the band but wear the same 
number of stars. Corporals have the same col- 
lar as that of a sergeant and two stars. 

Sword belts are worn under the coat by all 
ofBcers, the sword being allowed to hang from 
two supporting slings. Gold sashes passed 
around the waist and tied on the left side are 
worn by infantry officers when in fvill dress. 
Generals also have the gold sash, although in 
some cases it is worn over the shoulder. Offi- 
cers of uhlans, dragoons and artillery have 
the dispatdi-pouch and belt in place of the 

Austria, who began the World War, dressed 
her troops as before described during the early 
part of it, but later her soldiers appear to have 
been clad mostly in the German grey-green, re- 
taining however their own distinctive insignia 
of rank. No accurate information regarding 
the service uniforms of the Austrian army is as 
yet available. 




DARK green may be said to be the standard 
color of the uniform of the Russian 
soldier, although scarlet, white and blue coats 
are worn to some extent. The uniforms are 
both handsome and serviceable and with a few 
exceptions are singularly free from gaudy and 
useless ornamentation. 

General officers have a dark green, double- 
breasted coat, without buttons, reaching to the 
crotch ; the trousers are blue gray with two 
red stripes ; the head dress a black fur hat with 
double-headed eagle in front, A white belt 
encircles the waist, but does not support the 

A general of infantry has scarlet collar and 
cuff, embroidered with gold, and gold epaulets 
and breast cords ; a general of cavalry has sil- 


ver embroidery in place of gold, and silver 
epaulets, breast cord, and cap ornament; a 
general of artillery has the same uniform as 
that of a general of infantry, except that the 
coUar and cuffs are black instead of red. The 
general staff wear the same coat as do generals, 
except that the collar is black, embroidered 
in silver to the shoulder; epaulets of silver, 
without fringe, breast cord of silver, cuff of 
black faced with red with an overlaid vertical 
piece having four silver braids arranged cross- 
wise. Their trousers have a single red welt in 
place of the stripe and their cap ornament is 
the silver eagle. Infantry of the guard have a 
black fur hat with eight-pointed star cockade 
in front ; double-breasted buttonless coat, piped 
down the right breast with red, yellow or white, 
according to regiment, standing collar of red, 
light blue, dark green, or yellow, ornamented 
with two gold or silver stripes on either side, ex- 
tending from the front nearly to the shoulder ; 
overlaid vertical cuff with three bands of gold 
or silver braid, arranged crosswise, red or yel- 
low shoulder pieces, and dark green trousers 
with red or yellow welt. Grenadier regiments 


and Infantry of the Line wear practically the 
same uniform as Infantry of the Guard, except 
that their cap ornament ia the eagle ; their coats 
are not piped down the front and lack the 
stripes on the collar and do not have the verti- 
cal cuiF, and their trousers are plain. Cuiras- 
siers have a steel helmet and cuirass, white 
coats faced with red, yellow, or light blue, and 
blue trousers with welt to match facings. 
Uhlans wear the lancer helmet, blue coats with 
red breast, and blue trousers with red welt. 
There are two hussar regiments in the army. 
The first have red coats with yellow braid and 
dark blue trousers with yellow stripe; the sec- 
ond have green coats, braided with white, and 
red trousers with white stripe. The head dress 
of both regiments is the busby with red bag and 
white plume. The dragoons are dressed in 
dark green, faced with red, white, or light blue. 
TTieir head covering consists of a tall cap of 
the color of their facings with fur sides. 

Cossacks wear the tall fur hat with star 
cockade in front, and their coat is the long 
single-breasted frock. Trousers usually match 
the coat in color and have a red, yellow or light 


blue stripe. The coats of the Guard regiments 
are scarlet of the Ural and Keiser regiments, 
of the Don and Ataman regiments a bright 
blue, of the Kuban and Terek regiments red- 
dish brown, and of the other regiments gener- 
ally dark green. Artillery other than that of 
the Cossacks wear practically the same uni- 
form as that of the infantry. Coats in all 
branches of the service except dragoons and 
uhlans are without buttons. The overcoat for 
all troops is a grey ulster. The Russian sword 
is single edged, slightly curved and having a 
simple knuckle bow guard. It is worn by both 
officers and men, suspended from a narrow 
leather belt, which passes over the right shoul- 
der. Usually the knuckle guard is to the rear 
and the tip of the scabbard is on a line with 
the ankle. Although some officers wear epaulets 
when in full dress, insignia of rank is almost 
universally displayed upon shoulder straps of 
gold, extending from the top of the sleeve to the 
collar, the grades being distinguished in the 
following manner : 

For general officers a strap of solid gold 
embroidery, of zigzag pattern. 


Field Marshal Two gold crossed batons 

General of Infantry or 

Cavalry No device 

Lieutenant General Three silver stars 

Major General Two silver stars 

For colonels, lieutenant-colonels and majors 
the strap contains three broad stripes of gold 
with two narrow stripes and a border of the 
color of the regimental facing. The strap of 
a colonel is without device ; that of a lieutenant- 
colonel has three silver stars, and that of a 
major two silver stars. The strap of captains 
and subalterns has a narrow stripe of regi- 
mental color down the center and a border of 
the same color. 

Captain No device 

Second Captain Four sUver stars 

First Lieutenant Three silver stars 

Second Lieutenant Two silver stars 

Stars on all straps are placed side by side, 
if two, and in the form of a triangle if three. 
An extra star is placed above the third. Straps 
of all regimental officers contain the number of 
the regiment as well as the insignia of rank. 
Staff Sergeants have a stripe of gold across 
the colored shoulder-piece of their coat, ser- 

ITALY 133 

geants three stripes of yellow cloth, corporals 
two, and lance corporals one. 


Italy's military force consists of twelve 
army corps of two divisions each, besides 
certain special units. These troops are dis- 
tributed over five military zones, so as to pro- 
tect the country at all points. Dark blue coats 
and grey or dark blue trousers are worn 
throughout the army. A peculiarity of the Ital- 
ian uniform is the collar of the coat which is 
of the turn down instead of the erect type. A 
white five-pointed star is worn by both officers 
and men on each side of this collar. The coat, 
which is rather short, is double-breasted for 
officers and usually single-breasted for men. 

General officers have a dark blue coat with 
silver embroidered collar, silver shoulder knots 
and breast cord, grey trousers with double 
white stripe and a blue helmet surmounted with 
an eagle and having both erect and falling 
plumes. In field rig a cap replaces the helmet 
and a shoulder strap of dark blue with silver 
field, takes the place of knot and breast cords. 


The general staff uniform is dark blue through- 
out, faced with light blue, with gold epaulets 
and breast cord and yellow double stripes on 
the trousers. Their head dress is a low shako 
of equal height all around, ornamented with 
bands of gold, according to rank. Infantry 
have blue coats and grey trousers with single 
red stripes. Officers wear silver epaulets and 
insignia of rank and their trousers' stripe is 
twice as wide as that of the men. The hat is 
the same as that of the general staff with red 
trimmings for men and silver for officers. The 
bersaglieri, Italy's favorite troops, have the 
same type of uniform as that of the infantry of 
the line, but it is dark blue throughout (red 
facings) and their head dress is a patent 
leather hat ornamented with a mass of cock's 
feathers upon the right side. Officers wear gold 
epaulets and sleeve insignia. 

Alpine Jager troops have dark blue coats 
faced with light green, grey trousers with red 
stripe and a hat of derby form having a single 
feather upon the left side. Officers' epaulets 
and sleeve knots are of silver. 

The cavalry uniform consists of a dark blue 

ITALY 135 

coat and grey trousers with a double stripe. 
The trouser stripes of all enlisted men of this 
branch of the service are black, but for officers 
they vary according to the color of the regi- 
mental facing. The head dress for the heavy 
cavalry is a steel helmet surmounted by a high 
cock's comb of brass ; for the light cavalry it 
is a brown fur hat with small erect plume of 
same color. The epaulets and sleeve insignia 
of all cavalry officers are of silver. 

The carabinieri, both foot and horse, have 
a dark blue, swallow-tailed coat, and dark blue 
trousers with red stripes. Their head dress is 
the cocked hat which the men wear sidewise and 
the officers with ends pointing fore and aft. 
The coats of both officers and men are double- 
breasted and all ranks wear epaulets and breast 

Artillery troops have a dark blue uniform 
throughout with facings of yellow, officers 
wearing gold epaulets and sleeve knots. The 
hat is the shako, which in the mounted bat- 
teries has a long brownish black plume fastened 
on the right side. Most of the staff troops 
wear the dark blue uniform throughout, al- 


though some have the grey trousers. Epaulets 
and sleeve insignia of officers of the medical 
corps are silver, but for other staff corps offi- 
cers, they are of gold. None of the epaulets 
worn by any of the officers of the Italian army 
have any devices upon them. 

Insignia of rank is displayed upon the 
sleeves of the coat and upon the head dress. 

All uniform coats have a pointed cuff of the 
color of the regimental or staff corps facing, 
and above this cuff is worn a knot of gold or 
silver braid. Between the knot and the cuff 
are placed pointed stripes of wide or narrow 
braid, which mark the various grades. Gen- 
eral officers do not have the knot but wear 
their stripes upon the cuff- itself. 
Sleeve Insignia. 

General Three broad pointed stripes 

of silver braid upon a cuff 
of black, piped around 
the top with red. 

Lieutenant-General Two stripes 

Major-General One stripe 

Colonel. One broad and two narrow 

stripes below the knot, 
the broad stripe being 
placed nearest the cuff 

Lieutenant-Colonel One broad and one narrow 


ITALY 137 

Major One broad stripe 

Captain Two narrow stripes 

First Lieutenant One narrow stripe 

Second Lieutenlant The knot alone 

Non-commissioned officers wear the same 
knot as that of the officers, except that it is of 
red worsted instead of gold or silver. 

Sergeants and corporals are each divided 
into three classes and wear the following in- 

First Class One broad and two nar- 
row silver stripes below 
the knot 

Second Class One broad and one narrow 

silver stripe 

Third Class One broad silver stripe 

Corporal : 

First Class One broad and two narrow 

red stripes 

Second Class One broad and one narrow 

-red stripe 
Third Class One broad red stripe 

Insignia of rank is also displayed in the form 
of bands of gold or silver around the top of the 
head dress of all officers wearing the shako, and 
in the form of similar bands around the bot- 
tom of the undress cap which is worn by offi- 
cers of all branches of the service. The num- 
ber of stripes upon the shako or cap correspond 


to those of the sleeve insignia for the various 
grades. The shako of non-commissioned officers 
is ornamented in the same manner as those of 
officers, except that red and silver braid only 
is used. The top stripe for both sergeants and 
corporals is red. 

The sword belt has two depending slings and 
no hook and is worn by both officers and men 
beneath the coat. The sword knot is gold for 
officers and white leather for enlisted men. It 
is attached to the first branch of the knuckle 
bow of the sword which is of the sabre type in 
all arms of the service. Despatch pouches and 
belts are worn over the left shoulder by the 
cavalry and mounted artillery. The belts are 
gold for officers of artillery, silver for officers 
of cavalry and of white leather for the men of 
both branches of the service. 

Light blue sashes are worn over the right 
shoulder by officers of every arm of the ser- 
vice. In field uniform, epavilets are replaced 
by a narrow shoulder cord which is double for 
field officers and single for captains and sub- 

The service uniform of the Italian army. 

ITALY 139 

adopted after they had joined the Allies in the 
World War, was green-grey. Insignia of rank 
remained unchanged except that the sleeve 
knot of gold, silver or red was abolished for 
both officers and non-commissioned officers, the 
stripes alone being retained. 




THE Swedes have always been a race of 
fighters and upon many a bloody battle- 
field, especially in the Thirty Years' War, 
proved their courage and military prowess. 
Gustavus Adolphus may fairly be said to be 
the father of the Swedish Army for it was he 
who brought its organization into such a high 
state of efficiency and inculcated lessons in dis- 
cipline which lasted long after his death. In 
his time, 1611-1632, uniform, in the same 
sense in which we now understand the word, 
had not come into existence, and half armor 
was worn. 

The earliest uniforms of the Swedish Army 

were of the cutaway type with knee breeches, 

long leggins, and three-cornered hat. From 

1765-1778 the dress of the infantry consisted 



of a dark blue coat faced with yellow, yellow 
breeches, black leggins and a cocked hat. Offi- 
cers wore a gorget anS carried a pike, there 
being apparently no marks of distinction be- 
tween the grades. The halberd was the in- 
signia of a sergeant. 

In 1779 the facing was changed to pink and 
the hat became a flat-topped derby with erect 
plume upon the left side. This regulation re- 
mained in vogue until 1802, when the swallow- 
tailed coat replaced the cutaway. At this time 
also the yellow facings were restored and 
epaulets came into vogue; those of the officers 
being of silver and of the non-commissioned 
officers of white worsted. Swedish soldiers to- 
day possess both a dress and a service uniform 
the former being blue and the latter grey-green. 
The dragoons have a light blue uniform faced 
with white and a steel helmet with white plume, 
but with that exception uniforms are dark 
blue throughout, the shako being the almost 
universal head dress. A yellow welt appears 
upon the trousers of both officers and enlisted 
men in nearly every branch of the service. 

The single-breasted tunic is the dress coat 


for all arms, except the light cavalry and the 
artillery, who have the hussar jacket. Officers 
have a yellow waist sash with a blue stripe in 
its center. 

The service uniform consists of a grey-green 
blouse having four outside pockets, and a dark 
Idue rise and fall collar; trousers of the same 
color with a broad blue stripe, and a three- 
cornered grey-green hat with blue turned up 
edges. The hats and collars of officers have an 
edging of gold aroimd them, those of the men 
being plain. The overcoat is of the same color, 
and of ulster form. When in full dress, officers 
of artillery and light cavalry wear the badges 
of their rank upon the collar ; all other officers 
display them upon epaulets or shoidder knots 
which vary in form according to the degree of 

General Three stars 

Lieutenant General Two stars 

Major General One star 

Colonel Three stars 

Lieutenant Colonel Two stars 

Major One star 

Captain Three stars 

First Lieutenant Two stars 

Second Lieutenant One star 


Service Insignia. With the grey-green uni- 
form rank is indicated by stripes of gold braid 
upon a dark blue chevron-shaped field, directly 
above the cuff. In the case of officers, this field 
terminates in a knot, instead of a point and 
the top braid has a loop in it which follows the 
outline of the knot; non-commissioned officers 
have a pointed field and braid. 

General A very broad stripe nearly 

the width of the field and 
three small gold stars 

Lieutenant General Same bi'aid 'and two stars 

Major General Same braid and one star 

Colonel One broad and three narrow 


Lieutenant Colonel One broad and two narrow 


Major One broad and one riarrow 


Captain Three narrow stripes 

First Lieutenant Two narrow stripes 

Second Lieutenant One narrow stripe 

Staff Sergeant Two narrow stripes 

Sergeant One narrow stripe 

Staff Corporal .Three yellow worsted stripes 

Corpoi<al Two yellow stripes 

Lance Corporal One yellow Stripe 


The uniforms of the army of the Nether- 
lands are mostly dark blue in color, although 


the jager battalions are garbed in green and 
the infantry have light blue trousers. The 
head dress is the cocked hat for general 
officers ; the shako for infantry and heavy artil- 
lery ; and the busby for cavalry and field artil- 
lery. The hussars, which constitute the only 
class of troops of the cavalry arm, have the 
single-breasted, braided coat, and the field ar- 
tillery have a somewhat similar jacket only 
shorter and more heavily braided across the 
breast. The coat of officers and men, except 
in these branches of the service, is a double- 
breasted frock. A single-breasted blouse with 
outside pockets constituted the service coat for 
all grades and branches of the army. The 
jagers have a yellow welt on their trousers, 
other troops a red one. Generals have a double 
scarlet stripe. Both officers and men of the 
cavalry and field artillery have a black leather 
sabre-tasche. The sword is worn under the 
coat and officers, when in full dress, have an 
orange colored sash around the waist. Gen- 
eral officers wear epaulets of gold, and the 
collar and cuffs of the coat are embroidered 
with gold oak leaves. Upon the epaulet a 


lieutenant general has three silver stars and a 
major general two. In service rig, epaulets 
are not worn and rank is displayed upon the 
collar; a lieutenant general having four silver 
stars, and a major general two gold and two 
silver stars. For all grades below that of 
general officers the badge of rank is worn upon 
a collar field which extends to the shovilder and 
is gold for field officers and staff officers of that 
rank, and red for captains and subalterns. 

Colonel Three silver stars 

Lieutenant-Colonel Two stars 

Major One star 

Captain Three silver stars 

First Lieutenant Two stars 

Second Lieutenant One star 

Rank when in full dress is further shown by 
a sort of gold helmet cord, called the schulter- 
quasten, which passes under the right arm, 
falls to the waist line, crosses the breast and is 
attached to the left shoulder. At the end of 
this cord are gold tassels, the type of fringe 
differing according to rank. 

Colonel Four gold tassels 

Lieutenant-Colonel Two silver and two gold 



Major Three gold tassels 

Captain Two gold tassels 

First Lieutenant Three gold tassels of longer 

and thinner fringe 
Second Lieutenant Two tassels 

Warrant officers have a red collar field and 
one silver button; non-commissioned officers 
wear chevrons point upwards, directly above 
the cuff. 

Sergeant Major Two gold stripes 

Sergeant . ., One gold stripe 

Corporal Two yellow stripes 

The uniforms of the army of Holland under- 
went no important changes during the world 
war although her troops were used extensively 
in guarding her frontiers. 


Although a small country, Belgium has a 
wide variety of uniforms in her army and only 
a very general classification of them can be 
attempted here. 

The infantry have dark blue double-breasted 
coats, light blue trousers with red stripe, and 
shako with pompon ; the carbineers are clothed 
in dark green and have the alpine hat ; and the 
artillery have a short single-breasted jacket, 


brown trousers with red stripe, and the busby. 
The cavalry is divided into guides, dragoons 
and lancers, all of which wear the hussar coat, 
the braiding of which diifers according to regi- 
ment. The guides have green coats faced with 
yellow, red trousers with green or yellow stripes 
and the busby; the dragoons wear dark blue 
coats faced with red, yellow or white, light 
blue trousers and a plumed shako ; the lancers 
the same type of uniform as the dragoons, ex- 
cept that their head dress is the lancer helmet. 

General officers, when in full dress, have a 
single-breasted, dark blue, swallow-tailed coat 
with gold collar and cuffs, white riding breeches, 
knee boots and a chapeau. Gold epaulets and 
a yellow waist sash are worn with this uniform. 
In service dress the coat is the double-breasted 
tunic, the trousers are dark blue with red 
stripes, the Austrian cap replaces the chapeau, 
and shoulder knots are worn in place of 

Insignia of rank is worn by generals upon 
their epaulets or shoulder pieces; a lieutenant 
general having three gold stars thereon and a 
major-general, two. Officers of cavalry have 


their rank designated by means of a knot of 
braid on the sleeve which extends from the 
cuff to a point midway between the elbow and 

the shoulder. 

Colonel Five gold stripes 

Lieutenant-Colonel Three gold and two silver 


Major Four gold stripes 

Captain Three gold stripes 

First Lieutenant Two gold stripes 

Second Lieutenant One gold stripe 

Infantry, artillery and staff corps officers 
wear the insignia of rank upon the collar in 
the form of gold stars upon a colored field. 
Field officers have a band of gold on the front 
and bottom of their collar field, those of cap- 
tains and subalterns being without this orna- 

Colonel Three stars 

Lieutenant-Colonel Two stars 

Major One star 

Captain Three stars 

First Lieutenant Two stars 

Second Lieutenant One star 

Rank of non-commissioned officers is indi- 
cated by means of chevrons worn point upward, 
directly above the cuff. 


Sergeant-Major Two gold stripes 

Sergeant One gold stripe 

Corporal .Two yellow stripes 

Lance Corporal One yellow stripe 

The troops oi heroic Belgium when they 
threw themselves across the path of the Hunish 
invader were ill prepared, as far as uniforms 
and equipment were concerned, to meet the on- 
rush of the grey horde, but their hearts were 
stout, and under the leadership of their gallant 
king, they put up a defence which sadly disar- 
ranged the plans of the German general staff 
and won for themselves and their country an 
undying fame in the annals of the world. 

Fiercely contesting every foot of the way, 
the Belgian army was pressed back by over- 
whelming numbers, until only a corner of their 
dearly beloved country remained in their pos- 
session, but from this corner they refused to be 
dislodged and after four years of awful strug- 
gle they again entered their capital in triumph. 

After the fall of Antwerp the Belgian army 
was reorganized and outfitted anew. All of the 
ornamental dress of peace times was discarded 
and the new uniform was drab in color and 
French in cut and was eminently serviceable. 


Insignia of rank, which was standard for all 
branches of the service, was worn on the collar 
by commissioned officers, and upon the cuff by 
non-commissioned officers. 

General of Division. Three gold stars in 
the form of a triangle with two vertical stripes 
in front, and a design representing lightning 
in the rear. The collar field was edged all 
around with gold braid. 

General -of Brigade. Same insignia except 
that there is only one vertical stripe in front 
of the stars. 

Colonel. A nearly triangular collar field 
without gold braid, having three gold stars 
arranged two above and one below (the oppo- 
site arrangement from that of a general), and 
a small, horizontal, blunt-pointed crescent be- 
low, of the same metal. 

Lieutenant Colonel, Two stars and a cres- 

Major. One star and a crescent. 

Captain. Same collar field as that of a 
colonel without the crescent. Three stars, two 
of gold and one of sijlver. 

First Lieutenant. Two gold stars. 


Second Lieutenant. One gold star. 

Adjutant. One silver star. 

Sergeant Major. Three stripes around the 

First Sergeant. Two stripes. 

Sergeant. One stripe. 

Corporal. One stripe half the width of that 
of a sergeant. AH of these stripes were of gold. 

The decorations of the Belgian army were 
the Order of Leopold and the Croix de Guerre. 
The medal of the Order of Leopold was a white 
enameled Maltese cross surrounded by a wreath 
of green and surmounted by a golden crown. 
In the center of the cross was the Belgian lion 
in gold upon a blue field, enclosed in a circle of 
red. The ribbon was red without stripes. 

The Croix de Guerre was of bronze and 
nearly the same in design as that of the French 
except that it was surmounted by a crown. The 
ribbon was red with green stripes. 


Dark and light blue constitute the general 
color schemes of the uniforms of Danish 


soldiers. In the infantry the coats are of 
the former color, the trousers of the latter ; in 
the cavalry the dress is light blue throughout, 
while in the artillery both the coat and trou- 
sers are dark blue. With the exception of the 
hussars, who wear the customary jacket, 
braided with white, the coats of both officers 
and men are double-breasted, faced down the 
left side with red and having a standing collar 
of the same color. The undress coat is brown. 
A grey single-breasted service uniform is worn 
by all branches of the army. In full dress the 
head covering for generals and officers of the 
general staff is a cocked hat; for infantry, 
hussars and artillery it is the shako; for dra- 
goons the steel helmet. The trouser stripe of 
general officers is yellow; of infantry and hus- 
sars white; of dragoons and artillery red. The 
sword belt is worn over the coat, except by 
hussars. Cavalry have the dispatch pouch, 
which is worn attached to a white leather belt, 
which passes over the left shoulder. Hussars 
also have the sabre tasche. The undress cap 
of the Austrian model is light blue for infan- 
try and dark blue for artillery. Enlisted men 


of the cavalry have a light blue cap with white 
trimmings, which in form resembles that worn 
by British Highland regiments. Officers of 
cavalry wear the same cap as do those of in- 
fantry. The service cap for all officers and 
men is grey-green. The overcoat is brown, of 
ulster form. Insignia of rank in full dress is 
displayed upon shoulder knots; in service rig 
it is worn on the sleeve. 

Dress Insignia. General Officers. A shoul- 
der knot of gold cord with large five-pointed, 
silver stars; general three; lieutenant-general 
two; major general one. 

Field Officers and Staff Officers of that Rank. 
A gold or silver knot with small four-pointed 
stars; colonel three; lieutenant-colonel two. 
The grade of major does not exist in the Danish 

Line Officers and Staff Officers of that Rank. 
A knot composed of two strands of silver or 
gold and one of red or black and buttons of the 
opposite metal. Captains, three buttons ; first 
lieutenant, two buttons ; second lieutenant, one 
button. The metal and colors of the knots are : 
infantry, general staff and hussars, silver and 


red; artillery and dragoons, gold and red; 
pioneer, gold and black. 

Non-commissioned officers wear their insignia 
in the form of a chevron of silver, point up- 
ward, directly above the cuff, extending from 
seam to seam. 

Staff Sergeant Three stripes and a disk 

Sergeant Three stripes 

Corppral Two stripes 

Lance Corporal One stripe 

Service Insignia. — Insignia for officers in 
service uniform consists of narrow stripes of 
gold braid, encircling the cuff. The upper band 
has a small loop in it. 

Colonel Six stripes 

Lieutenant Colonel Five stripes 

Captain Three stripes 

First Lieutenlant Two stripes 

Second Lieutenant One stripe 

The stripes of non-commissioned officers are 
dark green. Service caps are braided around 
the bottom to match the sleeve insignia and 
have two stripes up the front, back and sides 
uniting in a knot on the top. 

Officers of the non-combatant part of the 
army, such as surgeons, wear a shoulder strap, 


similar in form to that used in the United States 
Army, having a gold border and a black field, 
upon which gold stars are displayed according 
to rank. The uniform of this part of the army 
is dark blue throughout, and its head dress is 
the chapeau. 






rir^URKEY uniforms her soldiers in dark 
I blue, the head dress of the cavalry and 
artillery being the Cossack fur hat, but in all 
other arms of the service, the red fez. 

In the artillery both officers and men have a 
single-breasted coat with nine rows of black 
braid and three rows of buttons across the 
breast. In the line cavalry the coats are single- 
breasted without braid for men and double- 
breasted for officers, and in the uhlan and life- 
guard regiments they have a red breast piece 
and two rows of buttons. Infantry of the line 
have the single-breasted tunic for the men and 
the double-breasted frock for the officers; zou- 
aves have the short open jacket, blue vest and 
baggy trousers. 


TUB.KET 157 

General officers and officers of the staff corps 
have the double-breasted frock. The line cav- 
alry and field artillery have grey breeches, but 
all the other arms of the service wear dark 
blue trousers. With a few minor exceptions 
all facings are red, and both officers and men 
have a collar, cuff, and trouser stripe of that 
color. Zouaves have a white canvas leggin, 
but other troops wear a short boot. The sword 
belt is worn under the coat by most officers, 
although generals and some branches of the 
cavalry wear it outside. 

Insignia of rank for officers in the form of 
gold or silver braid is worn on the sleeves di- 
rectly above the cuff, except by generals, whose 
coats are without colored cuff and who have a 
special criss-cross form of embroidery which ex- 
tends from the end of the sleeve half way to the 
elbow. The various grades are designated in 
the following manner : 

Field Marshal Four gold stripes 

Lieutenant General Three gold stripes 

Brigadier General Two gold stripes 

Colonel Four gold stripes 

Lieutenant-Colonel Two gold and two silver 



Major Three gold stripes 

Vice Major Two gold and one silver 


Adjutant Two gold stripes 

Captain One gold and one silver 


First Lieutenant One gold stripe 

Second Lieutenant One silver stripe 

General officers also have one, two or three 
gold stars on their epaulets or shoulder pieces 
according to rank. 

Non-commissioned officers wear a red seam 
to seam chevron, point upward on their left 

Staff Sergeant One gold and three worsted 


Sergeant Three worsted stripes 

Corporal One worsted stripe 


General Officers. Greyish black, single- 
breasted, seven-buttoned tunic, with red, gold 
embroidered collar and cuffs. Greyish black 
trousers, with red stripe. Low crowned grey- 
ish black cap with gold-embroidered band 
around bottom, and white plume. Gold epaulets 
with stars according to rank. Gold and red 
waist sash. 


General Staff. Same as above but with black 
collar and cuffs and a difference in the braiding 
and plume of the head dress. 

Infantry. Dark blue, single-breasted tunic, 
with red collar and cuffs. Grey trousers with 
red welt. Vizorless fur hat with tri-colored 
cockade and a feather on the left side. Officers 
have a greyish black tunic and trousers with 
red collar, cuffs, and trouser welt, and the 
same hat as the men. 

Jager. Brown tunic faced with green, the 
coats of both officers and men being double- 
breasted and cut after the Italian fashion. 
Officers have dark blue trousers and a brown 
cap with a green band around the bottom ; en- 
listed men have light brown trousers and a 
brown derby. 

Cavalry. Scarlet hussar jackets, braided 
with black; white riding breeches with blue 
welt; brown busby with yellow, white or green 
bags ; knee boots. 

Artillery. Brown double-breasted tunics, 
with black collars and cuffs; dark blue cap 
with blue or red pompon. Officers have greyish 
black trousers with red stripe, enlisted men 
light grey trousers with red welt. 


Both officers and men of cavalry and artillery 
wear the dispatch box over the left shoulder, 
the belt being gold for officers and white for 
enlisted men. 

Insignia of rank for officers is displayed on 
the sleeve in the form of gold embroidery above 
the cuff, arranged in an arrow-headed device ex- 
tending to the elbow. 

Division General Heavy embroidery around 

the top and back of the 

pointed cuff and two 

Brigadier General .The same cuff and one 

Field Officers Narrow embroidery on the 

cuff and the following 

stripes : 

Colonel Three 

Lieutenant Colonel Two 

Major One 

Line Officers No embroidery around cuff 

and the following stripes: 

Captain .Three 

First Lieutenant Two 

Second Lieutenant One 

Officers also wear one, two or three stars of 
silver on their epaulets, the form of epaulet dif- 
fering according to the various grades. 

Non-commissioned officers wear chevrons di- 
rectly above the pointed cuff. 


Sergeant-Major .Two gold stripes 

Sergeant One gold stripe 

Corporal Two yellow stripes 

Lance Corporal One yellow stripe 


Bulgarian uniforms resemble those of Rus- 
sia so closely that they might easily be 
mistaken for those of that country. The coats 
are without buttons, the trousers are tucked 
into knee boots, the head covering is the fur 
hat and swords are worn in the Russian man- 
ner. The author has been unable to ascertain 
the arrangement of the insignia of rank for 
the different grades, but generals wear epaulets 
and other officers a shoulder knot of gold or 

General Officers have a long green frock 
coat with red collar and cuffs, grey trousers 
with a double red stripe and a white fur hat. 

Infantry have a green tunic and trousers 
piped with red, white or light blue, and a black 
fur hat. 

Artillery have the same uniform as infantry 
except that the trousers are dark blue, and 
Cavalry have a dark blue uniform throughout, 
faced with red and with an erect white plume in 
the black fur hat. 



With a few exceptions the uniforms of 
the troops which compose the Servian army 
consist of a single-breasted, dark blue frock 
coat , grey-green trousers and a dark blue 
high, straight-vizored cap of shako form, 
ornamented with an erect plume. 

General Officers have gold-embroidered scar- 
let collar and cuffs and a gold band around the 
bottom of the hat. Their trousers are dark 
blue with a wide red stripe and they wear gold 
epaulets and a silver and black waist sash. The 
coats of other officers are without embroidery 
on the collar and cuffs, the cuffs being of the 
same color and material as the coat. In place 
of epaulets they wear shoulder knots of gold 
or silver. All trousers are worn tucked into 
knee boots. Sword belts, having two slings, 
are worn beneath the coat, and in full dress 
officers wear a silver and black waist sash. 

The infantry facing is green; that of the 
artillery black. The cavalry have a light blue 
coat with dark blue collar, red trousers and a 
light blue cap with a red plume. 



The Grecian Army, with the exception 
of the riflemen and cavalry are clothed in 
blue. The infantry have a single-breasted, 
dark blue frock coat, piped with red, a 
low-crowned shako with white falling plume, 
and light blue trousers with a red welt. The 
artillery are clothed in dark blue throughout, 
faced with red, and have a red pompon in their 
shako in place of the plume. Their coats are 
double-breasted and cut after the Italian fash- 
ion, only longer and having an erect instead of 
a- falling collar. The cavalry have the hussar 
jacket of dark green, ornamented across the 
breast with five rows of white braid. Their 
trousers are dark green with a red welt and 
their shako is the same shade of green trimmed 
with white and having a white and green falling 
plume. The jagers or riflemen have the show- 
iest uniform of any in the service, it being 
modelled after the national costume of the 
country. It consists of a heavily embroidered 
short white coat, open in front and having 
widely slashed sleeves, a white shirt, a white 


pleated skirt reaching to the knees, white knee 
breeches and stockings, low tan shoes with 
turned up toes ornamented with tufts of brown 
worsted, and a red vizorless cap with a long 
black tassel. Officers of cavalry and artillery 
wear the dispatch pouch suspended from the 
left shoulder, the belt being white for cavalry 
and black for artillery. 


The little kingdom of Montenegro dresses 
its troops in zouave costume, the shirts 
and coats being scarlet, the trousers dark blue 
and the leggins white. The head dress is a 
small flat-topped vizorless cap with a red top 
and brown sides. A peculiarity of this quaint 
rig consists in overhanging sleeves which are 
fastened at the shoulders and fall down over 
the regular sleeve of the coat. Red and yellow 
striped girdles are worn in place of belts. 

Officers have a long frock coat of dark blue, 
open in front, heavily ornamented with gold. 
Over this is worn a short scarlet jacket, the 
sleeves of which are turned back and fastened 
to the shoulders. 

MONTEN£G£0 165 

The author has been unable to obtain any 
accurate information regarding the service uni- 
forms worn by the troops of any of the Balkan 
states during the World War. 




THE Japanese are a race of soldiers and 
for centuries the profession of arms has 
ranked above all others in their regard. For 
hundreds of years they have lived in their island 
home, resisting successfully all efforts to over- 
power them, and whether fighting with two- 
handed swords or with the modern rifles they 
have proved to the world that the Japanese 
soldier is second to none. Before Commodore 
Perry brought Japan into touch with the rest 
of the world, life in that country was based 
upon the feudal plan in use in Europe during 
the Middle Ages, although the inhabitants of 
the "Land of the Rising Sun" were much 
further advanced in general culture than were 
our ancestors of that period. 

At the head of the government was the mi- 

JAPAN 167 

kado, who was, until the twelfth century, both 
the spiritual ajid temporal ruler of his people. 
Under him were the great lords, each of whom 
had in his service a number of armed retainers 
of gentle birth, known as samurai, whose rank 
corresponded to that of a knight. Below these 
samurai were the common soldiers, the mer- 
chantSj artisans, farmers and the rest of the 
population, the lowest class of which had no 
civil rights whatever. 

The samurai wore two swords, a long and a 
short one, thrust through their girdle, they 
alone being accorded this mark of distinction. 
They had a high code of knightly honor, were 
wonderful swordsmen and would die rather than 
suffer disgrace. 

Under the feudal law a noble was personally 
responsible for the conduct of his retainers, but 
when a samurai wished to execute some deed of 
personal vengeance he renounced his allegiance 
and became a ronin, thus relieving his lord of 
all liability regarding his future actions. The 
samurai were also accorded the privilege of 
conunitting hari-kari or self dispatch, instead 
of undergoing public punishment for a mis- 


deed, such a death being considered highly hon- 

During the twelfth century the temporal 
power of the mikado became vested in the hands 
of an official known as the shogun and this con- 
dition remained unchanged until 1868, when 
the office was abolished and the mikado again 
became the active head of the government. 
About the same time the samurai were dis- 
banded and Japan began the organization of 
that modern army which in the past few years 
has achieved such wonderful results upon the 
battlefields of Manchuria and placed the Japa- 
nese soldier in the front rank of the fighters of 
the world. 

Military service is now obligatory upon all 
males, and at the age of twenty every able- 
bodied man enters the army and serves three 
years with the colors before passing into the 
reserve. All officers are required to pass through 
three military schools and to serve a certain 
amount of time in the ranks before receiving a 

Japanese uniforms are dark blue, faced with 
the color of the arm of the service to which 

JAPAN 169 

the wearer belongs. These colors are scarlet 
for infantry, green for cavalry, yellow for ar- 
tillery and dark red for engineers. Stripes 
are worn upon all trousers, those of the offi- 
cers being of greater width than those of the 
men. The head dress for all arms of the ser- 
Adce is a rather high cap having a five-pointed 
gilt star in front. The caps of officers are 
braided with gold according to their rank, 
while those of the men have a wide band of 
colored cloth around the base, the color vary- 
ing according to the different classes of troops. 
Cavalry have the hussar coat, braided across 
the breast with red or yellow, according to regi- 
ment, and red trousers. Enlisted men of all 
other arms of the service have a rather short, 
single-breasted, five-buttoned coat and dark 
blue trousers. In summer white uniforms are 
worn. The dress coat of all officers is the 
double-breasted frock, with collar and cuff of 
the color of the service facing. Shoulder knots 
of gold or silver to match sleeve insignia are 
worn, and a sash is passed around the waist 
and fastened on the left side. In undress, the 
officers have a coat cut on the hussar model. 


braided across the breast with five loops of 
heavy black mohair braid. Insignia of rank 
with this coat is black instead of gold or silver. 
Sword belts are black for officers and tan for 
enlisted men. They are worn over the dress 
coat and beneath the undress jacket. 

Insignia of rank is worn by officers in the 
form of a pointed knot of braid extending from 
the cuff to a place half way between the shoul- 
der and the elbow. With the dress coat these 
knots are composed of gold or silver, with 
the undress coat of black braid. 

Officers of the pay corps have silver stripes, 
officers of the medical corps alternate stripes 
of gold and silver, all other officers gold stripes. 
Distinctions of the different grades are as 
follows : 

Marshal Seven stripes 

General Same as marshal 

Lieutenant Generlal Six stripes 

Major General Five stripes 

Colonel Six stripes (different knot) 

Lieutenant Colonel Five stripes 

Major Four stripes 

Captain Three stripes 

First Lieutenant Two stripes 

Second Lieutenant One stripe 

JAPAN 171 

Officers of the pay and medical corps wear a 
silver sash, all other officers one of alternate 
red and white stripes, the sash being worn with 
full dress and placed over the sword belt. War- 
rant officers have practically the same uniform 
as officers but without sleeve insignia. Non- 
commissioned officers and privates wear stripes 
of the color of their facings placed horizontally 
around the cuff the grades being marked as 
follows : 

First Sergeiant One broad and three nar- 
row stripes 

Sergeant ^. .One broiad and two narrow 


Corporal One broad and one narrow 


Privates (First Class) Three narrow stripes 

Privates (Second Class) Two stripes 

Privates (Third Class) One stripe 


Unlike the Japanese, the Chinese, until very 
recently, have always regarded the profession 
of arms with contempt, and have a proverb 
which says, "Better no son at all than one who 
is a soldier." When one remembers that the 
greatest desire of every man of this ancient 


and mighty country is to have a son to hand 
down his name to posterity, this proverb shows 
clearly, the extremely low esteem in which, for 
centuries, the fighting man was held. It is 
only within the past few years that China 
awakened from her long lethargy, began to 
discard her ancient ideas, and sought to be- 
come a world power in modern sense. One of 
the first results of these new methods of thought 
was the change of viewpoint regarding the 
status of the soldier. China at last realized 
that if she was to maintain her integrity and 
win the respect of other nations, she must have 
an army organized, equipped and drilled along 
modern lines and she set about to secure it. The 
task was truly a stupendous one but she under- 
took it with the patience and perseverance 
which are characteristic of her and has kept at 
it. Her work along this line is as yet by no 
means complete, but the martial spirit of her 
people has been aroused and a good start has 
been made in the right direction. That the 
Chinese can fight well when properly led is 
shown by the results which were accomplished 
in the Tai Ping Rebellion, under General Gor- 
don and other foreign officers. 

CHINA 173 

Under the old system only the lowest class 
of men served in the ranks of the army and the 
officers were often entirely without military ex- 
perience. All Chinese officials were divided into 
two classes, civil and military, and appointed 
from amongst those men who had successfully 
passed a very severe but strictly literary ex- 
amination at Pekin. As the civil officials out- 
ranked the military ones of the same grade 
and were held in much higher honor it, was the 
dearest wish of every military official to be 
transferred to the civil branch of the govern- 
ment and this did not tend to create soldierly 

It was her war with Japan which first opened 
the eyes of China to the need of a modern army. 
The ease with which the Japanese, men of her 
own race, defeated her imperfectly equipped 
troops, trained only in the methods of ancient 
warfare, amazed her, and she began reorganiz- 
ing her forces immediately after the close of 
that war. Not much was accomplished in 
this direction, however, except by Yuan Si Ki 
and a few other progressive viceroys, and for 
a number of years there was but little central 


authority in military matters, each viceroy 
maintaining such force as he saw fit, uniformed, 
armed and drilled in any manner that he de- 

If the Japanese War awoke China to the 
need of a standing army, organized along Euro- 
pean lines, it was the Boxer outbreak which 
drove that point home. The shame of seeing 
foreign troops march through her Forbidden 
City aroused her to the value of military train- 
ing as nothing else could have done. The recent 
revolution which overthrew the Manchu dy- 
nasty and established a republic was fought 
almost entirely with soldiers of the modern 
school, armed with magazine rifles, and proves 
how thoroughly she has learned her lesson. 

Before considering China's army of today, 
however, it might be interesting to glance 
briefly at the dress and equipment of her an- 
cient forces. As has been said before, all 
Chinese oflicials were divided into two classes, 
civil and military, the badges of rank for both 
consisting of devices worn upon the breast and 
back of the ofBcial robe which was almost in- 
variably of black silk. These devices were in 

CHINA 176 

the form of birds for civil officers and animals 
for military ones. As nearly as they can be 
approximated according to modern titles, the 
badges of military officers were as follows : 

Commander in Chief Unicorn 

Lieutenant General Lion 

Major Genei'al Ijon 

Colonel Leopard 

Lieutenant Colonel Leopard 

Major Tiger 

Captain Bear 

Lieutenant Panther 

Ensign Panther 

There does not appear to have been any 
standard uniform for the common soldiers, al- 
though some troops are described as having 
a tiger's head upon their breast. Their weapons 
were largely bows and arrows and crude forms 
of firearms. 

Chinese Army iiniforms are at present under- 
going some changes on account of the estab- 
lishment of the new government, and as the 
new regulations have not yet been issued it is 
impossible to describe them at present. Pre- 
vious to the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty 
and the formation of the republic, the uniforms 
were dark blue for dress, and olive drab for 


service and it is probable that these colors 
will remain, with perhaps a slight alteration 
in the rank badges caused by the discarding of 
the dragon as the national emblem. 

The latest regulations issued under the em- 
pire show China's army completely organized 
along modern lines, with uniforms of European 
type, faced with various colors to mark the 
diiferent branches of the service. The dress 
uniforms are dark blue throughout, the head 
dress being a cap and the trousers worn tucked 
into the boots, extending halfway to the knee. 
Officers have a single-breasted frock coat and 
men a somewhat shorter tunic. The coats of 
all officers have a standing collar, edged with 
gold and embroidered with a golden dragon 
and a small sun, the color of which differs ac- 
cording to rank. General officers have red suns 
and three, two and one bands on the front and 
around the top of the collar, field officers have 
dark blue suns and the same number of bands 
and captains and subalterns white suns and 
similar bands. Warrant officers have silver 
embroidery in place of gold, and dark blue 
suns ; and non-commissioned officers the same 

CHINA 177 

embroidery with white suns. All officers wear 
shoulder knots, similar in form to the U. S. 
Army model, which are gold for general officers ; 
gold and orange for field officers; and orange 
and gold for captains and subalterns. On these 
knots are worn dragon buttons of gold. 

Field Marshal, Colonel and Captain, three. 
Major General, Lieutenant Colonel and First Lieuten- 
ant, two. 
Brigadier General, Major, Second Lieutenant, one. 

The sleeves of the coat display insignia of 
rank in the form of a knot of gold braid, with 
stripes of gold below. 

Field Marshal A knot of three strands, and 

three stripes 

Major General Same knot, two stripes 

Brigadier General Same knot, one stripe 

Colonel A knot of two strands, and 

three stripes 

Lieutenant Colonel Same knot, two stripes 

Major Same knot, one stripe 

Captain A knot of one strand, and 

three stripes 

First Lieutenant Same knot, two stripes 

Second Lieutenant Same knot, one stripe 

General officers have a triple stripe of gold 
on their trousers, field officers a double stripe 
of cloth and captains and subalterns a single 


stripe of cloth. Rank is indicated by buttons 
on the front of the cap, which match the col- 
lar sun, set in an ornament of gold. This cap 
has also one, two, or three stripes of gold 
around it, the number matching the collar braid 
for the different grades. Warrant officers have 
silver and orange shoulder knots with silver 
buttons; non-commissioned officers orange and 
silver knots with the same button. Both wear 
silver sleeve knots but the grades differ so 
greatly from those in our army that it is im- 
possible to fix their relative rank with any 
great degree of accuracy. Roughly speaking, 
it may be said, warrant officers have the two- 
strand knot with one, two or three bands of 
silver below, and non-commissioned officers the 
single-strand knot with the same number of 
bands below. A narrow stripe of the service 
facing is also worn beneath the insignia. Their 
caps are also braided with silver and they wear 
the colored button of their collar sun in an 
ornament of the same metal. 

The service uniform of the Chinese army is 
olive drab throughout and consists of a cap, 
single-breasted blouse, plain trousers and short 

CHINA 179 

boots. The cap is ornamented with black braid 
in place of gold or silver, and has the same 
button in front as that worn on the dress hat. 
Insignia of rank for officers is in the form of 
bands of black braid around the cuff with gold 
dragon buttons above. 

Field Marshal Three broad stripes and 

three buttons 

Major General Two stripes and three but- 

Brigadier General One stripe and three but- 

Colonel Three medium stripes and 

two buttons 

Lieutenant Colonel Two stripes and two but- 

Major One stripe and two buttons 

Captain Three narrow stripes and 

one button 

First Lieutenant Two stripes and one but- 

Second Lieutenant One stripe and one button 

Warrant officers have light blue stripes of 
medium width and two silver buttons and non- 
commissioned officers narrow stripes of the same 
color, with one silver button. A narrow stripe 
of the service facing is worn beneath the in- 
signia as in full dress. 

Privates have stripes according to their 


class, first, second or third, of the color of 
their arm of the service and an oval brass or- 
nament on the front of the cap. In full dress 
they have cloth shoulder pieces which bear the 
regimental or staff corps designation. Facings 
of the different arms of the service are as fol- 

Infantry ,. .Scarlet 

Cavalry White 

Artillery YeUow 

Engineers Blue 

Quartermaster and Com- 
missary Corps Black 

Transport Brown 

Medical Corps Green 

The sword for both officers and men is single 
edged, slightly curved, and has only a knuckle 
bow for a guard. The sword belt, which is of 
black leather, is worn over the dress coat and 
under the service blouse. 


FOR the purpose of aiding students who 
desire to make an extensive research into 
the field of military costume, the author has 
compiled a list of works relating to the dress 
of the soldier ; a study of which will enable one 
to supplement the information contained in 
this book. 

Many of the works given in this list are now 
out of print but most of them can be found in 
the libraries of London, Paris and New York, 
and some of them in the libraries of smaller 
cities. As far as possible the date of publica- 
tion will be given, as this is sometimes an aid 
in fixing the period of which the book treats 
and also shows whether it is out of print or not. 

Military Antiqmties. 2 volumes. 1786. Francis Grose. 
Arms and Armour. 1877. Auguste Demmin. 
History of British Oostitme. 1834. J. R. FIanch6. 
A Critical Enquiry into Ancient Arms and Armour. 3 

volumes. 1844. S. R. Meyrick. 
Dress and Babits of the People of England. 2 volumes. 

179«. Joseph Strutt. 



Arms and Armour. 1902. Charles Boutell. 

Encyclopedia of Antiquities. 2 volumes. 1826. T. D. 

Arms and Armour. Charles H. Ashdown. 

A Complete Guide to Heraldry. A. C. Fox-Davies. 

Companion to English History. 1902. F. P. Barnard. 

Spanish Arms and Armour. 1907. A. F. Calvert. 

Flags of the World. F. Edward Hulme. 

The Book of the Sword. 1884. Richard F. Burton. 

Observations on Swords. Henry Wilkinson. 

Choix des Costumes Cival et Militaires. 1798. Willemin. 

Schools and Masters of Fence. 1893. Egerton Castle. 

Foreign Armour in England. 1898. J. S. Gardner. 

History of the Dress of the British Soldier. 1862. 
John Luard. 

Medals and Decorations of the British Army and Navy. 
2 volumes. 1897. John H. Mayo. 

Her Majesty's Army. 2 volumes. Walter Richards. 

The Army of the United States. Published by the War 
Department. Describes in detail the dress of the 
army from 1774 to 1888. Forty-four large illustra- 
tions from water color drawings. 

The Private Soldier under Washington. 1902. Charles 
K. Bolton. 

United States Army Regulations. 1863. War Depart- 

The British Army. 1868. Sir S. D. Scott. 

Uniforms of the British Army, Navy bind Court. 1894. 
T. H. Holding. 

The British Army. 1888. J. H. L. Archer. 

The following publications by the British 
War Office : 

General Regulations and Orders for His Majesty's 
Forces. 1786. 

Dress of Officers of the lAne. 1796. 

Regulations for Dress of General Staff and other Offi- 
cers of the Army. 1831. 


Regulations for Dress of Army. 1846, 1856, 1866, 1874, 
1883, 1891, 1904. 

Army Regulations. India. 1912. 

The Armies of Europe. 1890. Count Gleichen. 

Collection des uniformes armie Francaise. 1822. H. 
Veinett & E. Lami. 

Costumes Militaires. Fifty colored plates by Charlet, 
showing French army uniforms from 1789 to 1815. 

L'Arm4e Francaise. War Office. 

Les Uniformes de I'Armie Francaise diipuis 1690 jusqiui 
noa jours 6 volumes. Dr. Leinhart et R. Humbert. 

Cartilla de Uniformidad. 1884. Sp'anish War Office. 

Army Dress Regulations. Chinese War Office. 

German Military Uniforms at the International Ex- 
hibition in Paris in 1900. Published by Prussian War 

The following works are published by Moritz 
Ruhl at Leipzig. They are profusely illus- 
trated in colors. Their text is in German. 

Die Uniformen de Deutschen Armee. 

Military Album der Deutschen Armee. 

Die Russische Armee. 

Die Englische Arm,ee. 

Die Niederlandische Armee. 

Die Belgische Armee. 

Die Schwedische Armee. 

Die D'anisehe Armee. 

Die Italienische Armee. 

Die Spanishe Armee. 

Die Armee der Balkanstaaten. 

Die Japanesche Armee. 

Die Nordamenkanische Arm,ee. 

Die Rumanische Armee. 

Uniformen and Abzeichen der Osterr — Ungar Wehra- 

Militar Album der Oesterreichisch — mtgarischen Armee. 
Die Fr'anzosiche Armee. 
Die Chinisehe Armee. 


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